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CT and MRI features in adult patients with orbital subperiosteal abscess secondary to paranasal sinus mucocele

July 18, 2017  |  Chang-Wei Ding, MD; Qiu-Shi Wang, MS; Qi-Yong Guo, MD; Jun Zhang, MD; Zhen-Hai Wang, MD


Orbital subperiosteal abscess (OSPA) secondary to paranasal sinus mucocele (PSM) is rare, and it may be misdiagnosed as PSM with orbital invasion or even as a malignant neoplasm. The present study explored the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of OSPA. The cases of 13 patients with OSPA secondary to PSM were retrospectively reviewed. CT had been performed in 12, MRI in 7, and postcontrast MRI in 4. OSPA was revealed as a well-demarcated, spindle-shaped mass that was broad-based and located beneath the superior orbital wall (orbital roof) in 11 and at the medial wall in 2. PSM appeared as an expansile cystic lesion in the ethmofrontal sinus in 7, frontal sinus in 5, and ethmoidal sinus in 1. Because the OSPA was connected to the PSM, it looked like a single lesion involving both the orbit and the sinus. All 12 OSPAs examined on CT were low-density; 9 of the 12 PSMs were low-density and 3 were iso-density. Densities of the OSPAs and PSMs were equal in 4 and slightly different in 8. Five of the 10 OSPAs occurring beneath the orbital roof had unclear boundaries with the PSMs on CT. On MRI, although both OSPAs and PSMs mainly demonstrated hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, the signal intensities were slightly different, and linear-shaped hypointensity could be found between them. Postcontrast MRI revealed arch- and ring-shaped enhancement, respectively, at the edge of the OSPA and the PSM. Septal enhancement separated them more clearly. PSM is an important cause of OSPA in adults. CT and MRI can accurately display these entities' characteristic findings and their anatomic relationship, as well as playing an important role in the differential diagnosis.

Lymph-node-positive cutaneous nonmelanoma skin cancer: A poor-prognosis disease in need of treatment intensification

July 18, 2017  |  Lora S. Wang, MD; Elizabeth A. Handorf, PhD; John A. Ridge, MD, PhD; Barbara A. Burtness, MD; Miriam N. Lango, MD; Ranee Mehra, MD; Jeffrey C. Liu, MD; Thomas J. Galloway, MD


Locoregionally advanced nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has an aggressive clinical course characterized by high rates of treatment failure and poor survival compared with localized skin cancers. Our goal was to investigate multimodal therapy for lymph-node-positive NMSC. Data from patients with lymph-node-positive NMSC who underwent surgery and adjuvant therapy at a single tertiary center from 2002 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 1.8 years (range: 0.5 to 8.5). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used to determine the association between locoregional control (LRC) and the following variables: evidence of extracapsular extension, number of lymph nodes positive, largest involved lymph node, presence of a positive margin, and use of concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). Forty-six patients were evaluated, 13 (28%) of whom received adjuvant CRT. CRT patients were younger (p < 0.001) and had a significantly greater number of positive lymph nodes (p = 0.016) than patients who received adjuvant radiation alone. At 5 years, LRC was 76%, PFS was 65%, and OS was 49%. Univariate analysis demonstrated that CRT (p = 0.006), largest lymph node measurement (p = 0.039), and ≥3 involved lymph nodes (p = 0.001) predicted local recurrence. CRT (p = 0.035, odds ratio [OR] 0.20 [95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.90]) and ≥3 involved lymph nodes (p = 0.017, OR 0.07 [95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.62]) remained significant on multivariate analysis. CRT was well tolerated. No grade ≥3 toxicities were observed except for 1 asymptomatic grade-4 thrombocytopenia. Patients with lymph-node-positive NMSC do poorly. Patient selection for intensification of adjuvant therapy needs clarification.

Long-term recurrence-free survival after an unplanned reduction in radiotherapy for HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC: Two cases and a review of the literature

July 18, 2017  |  Jason Liu, BS; David Goldenberg, MD; Salah Almokadem, MD; Henry Crist, MD; Heath B. Mackley, MD, FACRO


There is currently no clear distinction between the treatment of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). HPV-positive OPSCC has been demonstrated to be more radiosensitive than its HPV-negative counterpart. Despite this, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC continue to receive a full dose of radiation (70 Gy) outside clinical trials. However, this high dose comes with considerable morbidities, including severe mucositis, dysphagia, and xerostomia. We describe the cases of 2 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC who received two cycles of high-dose cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on 3 separate days, along with concurrent radiotherapy at 50 Gy in 25 fractions for one and 46 Gy in 23 fractions for the other. During treatment, both patients experienced significant acute-phase toxicities-including grade 3 mucositis, grade 3 nausea, and grade 2 dermatitis-and their treatment regimen was stopped before its planned completion. Nevertheless, after a follow-up of 75 and 78 months, respectively, neither patient exhibited any evidence of disease. Late toxicities included grade 1 xerostomia, grade 1 pharyngeal-phase dysphagia, and grade 1 dysgeusia with some foods. We conclude that de-escalating the dose of radiation for HPV-positive patients by 30% and identifying which patients can safely be treated with this level of dose reduction warrants further study.

Lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma) of the oral cavity

July 18, 2017  |  Lester D. Thompson, MD

The most common site is the anterior maxillary gingiva, while posterior, mandibular, and facial gingiva may also be affected.

PlasmaBlade vs. cold dissection tonsillectomy: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in adults

July 18, 2017  |  Rasim Yilmazer, MD; Zahide Mine Yazici, MD; Meliksah Balta, MD; Ibrahim Erdim, MD; Omer Erdur, MD; Fatma Tulin Kayhan, MD


We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of the PlasmaBlade device and cold dissection for adult tonsillectomy. Our study group was made up of 20 patients-12 men and 8 women, aged 18 to 50 years (mean: 27.1)-who were undergoing a bilateral tonsillectomy. Each patient had one randomly chosen tonsil removed by the PlasmaBlade and the other by cold instrumentation. We compared the duration of surgery, the amount of intraoperative blood loss, the number of sutures required, the status of tonsillar fossa wound healing at 7 and 14 days postoperatively, the amount of postoperative pain, and postoperative complications. We found statistically significant differences in the amount of blood loss and the number of sutures in favor of the PlasmaBlade technique. No significant differences were observed in any of the other outcomes.

Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rates in children compared by surgical technique

July 18, 2017  |  Nicole M. Reusser, MD; Robert W. Bender, MD; Nikhil A. Agrawal, MD; James T. Albright, MD; Newton O. Duncan, MD; Joseph L. Edmonds, MD


Despite the sheer number of pediatric tonsillectomies performed in the United States annually, there is no clear consensus as to which surgical technique is superior. One way to compare surgical techniques is to study the morbidity associated with each. We report postoperative hemorrhage rates, one of the frequently encountered major adverse events, as part of a retrospective chart review across four different surgical techniques. These surgeries involved either (1) Coblation, (2) Co-blation with partial suture closure of the tonsillar fossa, (3) diathermy, or (4) partial intracapsular tonsillectomy (PIT). Of the 7,024 children we evaluated, 99 (1.4%) experienced a postoperative hemorrhage that required a second surgery; hemorrhage occurred after 33 of the 3,177 Coblation-alone procedures (1.04%), 28 of the 1,633 Coblation with partial suture closure procedures (1.71%), 29 of the 1,850 diathermies (1.57%), and 9 of the 364 PIT procedures (2.47%). Statistical analysis of hemorrhage rates with each surgical technique yielded p values >0.05 in each case (Coblation alone and Coblation with partial suture closure: p = 0.29; diathermy: p = 0.47; PIT, p = 0.20). Based on these data, we conclude that none of these techniques is significantly superior in terms of decreasing the risk of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage in children. Therefore, surgeons should continue to use the surgical procedure they are most familiar with to optimize recovery in the postoperative period.

Myiasis in patients with head and neck cancer: Seldom described but commonly seen

July 18, 2017  |  Fabio Muradas Girardi, MD, MSc; Maria Lucia Scrofernecker, PhD


Human myiasis is a parasitosis usually found in tropical and underdeveloped countries. It usually affects ulcerated lesions or devitalized tissues, developing after deposition of dipterous eggs. Patients with head and neck cancer are at risk to develop secondary myiasis. A representative percentage of those patients manifest with neglected and advanced tumors, usually in exposed areas and with necrotic tissues. Few case reports and small series constitute the available information about this parasitosis. Most studies have been conducted in patients with skin carcinomas, although myiasis has already been described in association with other head and neck malignancies. The authors present a series of 12 cases of myiasis secondary to head and neck cancer in addition to a literature review.

A severe case of Reinke edema

July 18, 2017  |  Mark C. Lentner, DO; Nathan L. Colon, MD; Amanda Hu, MD, FRCSC

Heavy smoking (especially in women), laryngopharyngeal reflux, hypothyroidism, and voice abuse are common etiologies associated with this condition.

Conservative management of postoperative chylous fistula with octreotide and peripheral total parenteral nutrition

July 18, 2017  |  Jason Y. Chan, MBBS; Eddy W. Wong, FRCSEd(ORL), FHKCORL; S. K. Ng, FRCSEd(ORL), FHKCORL; C. Andrew van Hasselt, FCS(SA)ORL; Alexander C. Vlantis, FCS(SA)ORL


Postoperative chylous fistula after neck dissection is an uncommon complication associated with significant patient morbidity. Octreotide acetate is a somatostatin analogue established in the treatment of chylothorax; however, its utility in the management of cervical chylous fistulae has not been fully evaluated. The investigators hypothesized that chylous fistula can be managed by a combination of octreotide and peripheral total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A retrospective review of cases compiled at our institution from 2009 to 2015 was conducted. Ten patients, all men, were identified as having a postoperative chylous fistula after a neck dissection. All patients were treated with peripheral TPN and intravenous octreotide. Mean age of the patients was 63.0 years (range 49 to 82). Five (50.0%) had a neck dissection for the management of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma and had previous neck irradiation. In 8 (80%) patients, chylous fistula occurred in the left neck. Seven (70.0%) of the leaks occurred within the first 2 postoperative days. Eight (80%) leaks were controlled using TPN and octreotide, with 2 (20%) patients requiring surgical intervention. No factors were significant in the successful conservative management of chylous fistulae. One patient with a chylous fistula of 1,800 ml/day was managed successfully without surgical intervention. The results of this case series suggest that chylous fistulae may be managed conservatively with octreotide and TPN. However, long-term evaluation is needed to define if and when surgical intervention is required for control.

Bilateral second branchial cleft fistulae in a boy with congenital heart disease

July 18, 2017  |  Yi-Fang Lee, MD; En-Li Shiau, MD

The diagnosis of branchial anomalies depends on good history taking, physical examination, proper image studies, and a high index of suspicion and clinical awareness.