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Auricular solitary gouty tophus in a young adult

February 20, 2017  |  Chao-Yin Kuo, MD; Chih-Hung Wang, MD, PhD

The auricle, with its supersaturation of blood uric acid due to decreased temperature and reduced blood flow, is prone to develop gouty tophi.

Posterior epistaxis from inferior meatus: An endoscopic view

February 20, 2017  |  Jae Hoon Lee, MD

Most of the bleeding in posterior epistaxis originates from the posterior end of the lateral aspect of the middle and inferior turbinates and the lateral wall of the meatuses.

The use of high-resolution pharyngeal manometry as biofeedback in dysphagia therapy

February 20, 2017  |  Ashli O'Rourke, MD; Kate Humphries, MS

HRPM biofeedback therapy may be particularly beneficial for patients with sensory deficits by providing a visual mechanism for accurate exercise and strategy implementation.

Thyroglossal duct cyst

February 20, 2017  |  Lester D. Thompson, MD

Most patients present with a mobile, painless midline neck mass, usually inferior to the hyoid bone, showing movement with tongue protrusion.

Estimation of partitioning of airflow in septal surgery: A prospective study with reference to the NOSE scale

February 20, 2017  |  Indranil Sen, MS; Mainak Dutta, MS; Dibakar Haldar, MD; Ramanuj Sinha, DLO, MS, DNB

Abstract

Improper patient selection for septal surgery often has been found to result in therapeutic failure, and there needs to be an objective assessment of nasal obstruction before the surgery and for postoperative follow-up that can be applied in the routine otolaryngology practice. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of a cost-effective device for objective measurement of the nasal airway partitioning in selecting patients for septal surgery and for postoperative outcome evaluation. A hospital-based, prospective, observational study was carried out in a tertiary-care teaching institution involving 74 patients waiting for septal surgery. Each patient was exposed to subjective assessment of nasal obstruction by the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale and objective measurement by Nasal Partitioning Ratio (NPR) using a new device, Nasal Airway Partition Meter (NAPM), once before and twice after surgery. Overall, average NOSE score and NPR values were 66.42 ± 9.42 and 0.57 ± 0.18, respectively, at preoperative assessment (correlation coefficient 0.441). Sixty of the 74 patients had high values for both NPR and NOSE scores (Group 1), but in the remaining 14, NPR values were found to be lower despite high NOSE scores (Group 2). Postsurgery, the NOSE score and NPR values were significantly reduced in Group 1. In contrast, participants in Group 2 showed no alteration in the values of both the parameters after the same operative maneuver. However, 2 patients in Group 1 had NOSE score and NPR values unaltered, while 1 patient in Group 2 had a reduced NOSE score after surgery. Therefore, the validity of the new equipment was calculated to be 96.7% sensitive and 92.9% specific to identify patients who needed to undergo septal surgery for their nasal obstruction. It can be deduced from the present study that NAPM can be a cost-effective device for clinicians to objectively measure nasal airway obstruction and screen patients for septal surgery.

Efficacy of Intralipid infusion in reducing amphotericin-B-associated nephrotoxicity in head and neck invasive fungal infection: A randomized, controlled trial

February 20, 2017  |  Mehrdad Hasibi, MD; Sirous Jafari, MD; Seyyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, MD; Marjan Asadollahi, MD; Mohammadreza Salehi, MD; Varasteh Vakili Zarch, MD; Ali Kouhi, MD

Abstract

Amphotericin B deoxycholate (ABD) is the best therapeutic agent available for the treatment of most systemic fungal infections. However, some untoward adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity may limit its appropriate therapeutic use. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial ofthe infusion of fat emulsion (Intralipid) shortly after the infusion of ABD to evaluate its effects on reducing ABD-associated nephrotoxicity. Our patient population was made up of 31 patients who were randomized into two groups: an intervention group (n = 16) and a control group (15 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographic or clinical variables. All patients received 1mg/kg/day of ABD in dextrose 5%. In addition, the patients in the intervention arm received Intralipid 10%, which was started as soon as possible within 1 hour after the infusion of ABD. ABD-associated nephrotoxicity was defined as a minimum 50% increase in baseline serum creatinine to a minimum of 2mg/dl. We also measured daily serum creatinine changes during the first 2 weeks of treatment, and we compared some other relevant indices of renal function, as well as ABD-related hypokalemia. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatments in terms of ABD-associated nephrotoxicity or any of the other indices. We conclude that the administration of Intralipid 10% early after infusion of ABD in dextrose 5% does not have any effect in decreasing ABD-associated nephrotoxicity or hypokalemia.

Auricular complications in parotid, temporal bone, infratemporal fossa, and lateral skull base surgery

February 20, 2017  |  Patrick S. Carpenter, MD; Ryan C. Burgette, MD; John P. Leonetti, MD; Sam J. Marzo, MD

Abstract

Neoplasms located in the parotid region, temporal bone, infratemporal fossa, and lateral skull base represent a challenge due to their difficult anatomic location and surrounding neurovascular structures. A variety of surgical approaches are appropriate to access this area, although several of them can place the auricular blood supply in danger. If the auricular blood supply is compromised, ischemia and, eventually, avascular necrosis of the auricle can occur. Auricular necrosis often can cause patients a delay in adjuvant radiation therapy and result in the need for additional reconstructive procedures. Therefore, it is imperative to identify risk factors associated with the development of this disabling complication. We conducted a retrospective review of 32 individuals undergoing treatment of benign and malignant lesions in the parotid gland, infratemporal fossa, and lateral skull base. To identify potential risk factors for auricular necrosis, the patients were analyzed based on the type of neoplasm (malignant or benign), risk factors affecting blood flow (diabetes mellitus, smoking history, prior radiation, prior surgery), body mass index, and the length of surgery. In our population examined, 3 instances of auricular necrosis occurred. None of the potential risk factors proved to be statistically significant (although malignant pathology approached significance at p = 0.07). Two of the patients required an auriculectomy with reconstruction. The third had multiple postoperative clinic visits for surgical debridement. Although no potential risk factors were statistically significant, surgeons should remain cognizant of the auricular blood supply while performing surgery via preauricular and postauricular approaches to this area.

Atypical parathyroid adenoma with diffuse fibrosis

February 20, 2017  |  Christine M. Clark, BA; Sakeena J. Payne, MD; Joshua I. Warrick, MD; David Goldenberg, MD, FACS

Atypical parathyroid adenomas are infrequently encountered and can present a diagnostic challenge, as they share overlapping clinical and histologic features with parathyroid carcinoma.

Comparison of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

February 20, 2017  |  Ryan Kent Meacham, MD; Jerome W. Thompson, MD, MBA

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study of the use of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccineas adjunctive treatments to lesion debridement in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Our study population was made up of 15 children-7 boys and 8 girls, aged 1 to 16 years at diagnosis (mean: 6.2)-with pathologically confirmed RRP who had been followed for at least 1 year. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on disease severity, the type of adjunctive treatment administered to each patient, the frequency of debridements, the length of observation, and remission rates. Of the 15 patients, 5 had been treated with cidofovir after debridement (cidofovir-only group), 6 were treated with MMR vaccine after debridement (MMR-only group), 3 were treated with one and later switched to the other based on parental preference, and 1 received neither treatment, only debridement. The initial mean Derkay disease severity scores were 12.6 for the cidofovir-only group and 11.0 for the MMR-only group (p = 0.61). The cidofovir-only patients underwent an average of 11.8 adjunctive treatments and the MMR-only patients an average of 17.7 (p = 0.33). The average duration of observation was 44.0 months in the cidofovir-only group and 64.7 months in the MMR-only group (p = 0.29). Remission rates were 20% in the cidofovir-only group and 50% in the MMR-only group (p = 0.54). Our study found insufficient evidence of any significant differences between cidofovir and the MMR vaccinein terms of the number and frequency of adjunctive treatments and the rates of remission.

Significance of imaging in the diagnosis of olfactory disorder

February 20, 2017  |  Teemu Harju, MD; Markus Rautiainen, MD, PhD; Ilkka Kivekas, MD, PhD

Abstract

The aim of this retrospective analysis was to examine olfactory disorders among the patients in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Tampere University Hospital, Finland, from 2001 to 2011, and to evaluate the necessity of imaging in the examination of patients with olfactory disorders. Charts of 143 consecutive patients with a primary olfactory disorder were examined, and 69 patients who had undergone the necessary testing were included in the study. The most common causes of olfactory disorder were upper respiratory infection (23%), chronic rhinosinusitis (19%), head trauma (17%), and allergic or nonallergic rhinitis (6%). In 25% of the patients, no obvious cause for the symptoms was found. Computed tomography (CT) scans were normal in 37 of 52 (71%) patients and magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 21 of 25 (84%) patients. No intracranial or intranasal tumors were found in the overall cohort. Of the patients with additional symptoms (facial pain, headache, nasal discharge, or stuffiness), 58% had chronic rhinosinusitis. Of the patients with no additional symptoms or signs associated with chronic rhinosinusitis on clinical evaluation, only 2% had chronic rhinosinusitis on imaging. Only the detection of chronic rhinosinusitis and head trauma had clinical value in the determination of the etiology. A sinonasal CT scan should be considered in patients who have at least one symptom associated with sinusitis in addition to an olfactory disorder to confirm the etiology and to find those patients who may benefit from medical therapy or surgical treatment.

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