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Metastatic chordoma of the tongue: Case report

March 24, 2017  |  Sultan Bişkin, MD; Rabiye Uslu Erdemir, MD; Sultan Şevik Eliçora, MD; Sevim Aydınlı, MD; Şükrü Oğuz Özdamar, MD


Chordomas are rare bone tumors that arise from notochord remnants. They most commonly occur in the sacrum, but they also can be seen in the skull base, cervical spine, and thoracolumbar vertebrae. Chordomas account for 1 to 4% of all primary skeletal tumors. They are usually indolent, locally growing tumors. Distant metastasis has been reported in 3 to 48% of cases. When metastasis occurs, it is usually observed in the lung, bone, and liver. To the best of our knowledge, no case of a chordoma metastasis to the tongue has been previously reported in the literature. We report such a case in a 61-year-old man.

Treatment success with titratable thermoplastic mandibular advancement devices for obstructive sleep apnea: A comparison of patient characteristics

March 24, 2017  |  Tang-Chuan Wang, MD; Yung-An Tsou, MD, MSc; Yi-Fan Wu, MD; Chia-Chang Huang, MD; Wesley Wen-Yang Lin, MSc; Yu-Fen Li, PhD, MPH; Michael Yuan-Chien Chen, MD; Chih-Jaan Tai, MD, MSc; Ming-Hsui Tsai, MD


A titratable thermoplastic mandibular advancement device (MAD) is clearly an effective treatment option in some patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Determining which patients may be more likely to respond to treatment with thermoplastic MADs and to adhere to treatment would be of obvious clinical relevance. This was an experimental descriptive study (N = 60). Patients with OSA were instructed to wear a titratable thermoplastic MAD for 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a ≥50% reduction from baseline in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or AHI <10 when wearing MAD. Adherence was defined as MAD use ≥5 nights/week. Treatment was successful in 66.7% of patients and 60.0% were adherent. All polysomnographic parameters and visual analogue scale scores (sleep quality, snoring, waking refreshed) were significantly improved after treatment. The patients in whom treatment failed had significantly higher neck circumferences (39.3 cm vs. 37.5 cm, p = 0.014), higher baseline AHI values (26.6 vs. 18.0, p = 0.016), and smaller AHI reduction (-31.8 vs -53.1, p < 0.001) than those in the group in whom treatment succeeded. There were no significant differences in polysomnographic, cephalometric, or visual analogue scale measures between patients for whom treatment was and was not successful, regardless of baseline values or the change rates after the MAD was placed. Titratable thermoplastic MADs can improve indicators of sleep quality, even in patients in whom treatment is considered to have failed.

Nasal, oral, and pharyngolaryngeal manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris: Endoscopic ororhinolaryngologic examination

March 24, 2017  |  Masafumi Ohki, MD; Shigeru Kikuchi, MD, PhD


Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disorder that involves the skin and mucous membranes. Few reports have described nasal and oropharyngolaryngeal lesions in pemphigus vulgaris using an endoscopic ororhinolaryngologic examination. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 11 patients with pemphigus vulgaris between 2001 and 2013 with respect to their symptoms, lesion sites, lesion features, and treatments received. All patients had undergone an endoscopic ororhinolaryngologic examination. Their mucosa-related symptoms were sore throat, oral pain, odynophagia, gingival bleeding, hoarseness, and epistaxis. The most frequent sites were the oral cavity (gingiva and buccal mucosa), larynx (epiglottis and vocal fold), oropharynx (soft palate), and nasal cavity (nasal septum). Lesions were typically characterized by erosion, erosion with a whitish exudate, and erythematous patches. Thus, our study findings reveal that pemphigus vulgaris involves both the nasal and oropharyngolaryngeal regions. Patients with pemphigus vulgaris should undergo an endoscopic ororhinolaryngologic examination to determine the range of their lesions.

Repair of the dilated earlobe

March 24, 2017  |  Akshay Sanan, MD; Ryan Heffelfinger, MD

Gauge ear piercing involves piercing the ear with gradual dilation and stretching of the ear lobule after plugs of increasing diameter are inserted.

The rising incidence of major salivary gland cancer in the United States

March 24, 2017  |  Anthony G. Del Signore, MD; Uchechukwu C. Megwalu, MD


We performed a population-based historical cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine trends in the incidence of major salivary gland cancer and to evaluate the effect of sex, tumor size, histology, primary site, and extent of disease. Participants were men and women with major salivary gland cancer, diagnosed 1973-2009. The incidence of major salivary gland cancer increased from 10.4 per 1,000,000 in 1973 to 16 per 1,000,000 in 2009 (annual percent change [APC] 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 1.20; p < 0.05). The incidence of parotid cancers increased (APC 1.13; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.39; p < 0.05) and paralleled the increase in major salivary gland cancer overall. There was an increase in the incidence of tumors measuring 0 to 2.0 cm (APC 1.99; 95% CI 0.61 to 3.38; p < 0.05), but no change in tumors measuring 2.1 to 4.0 cm (APC 1.02; 95% CI -0.46 to 2.52; p > 0.05) and tumors measuring > 4 cm (APC -0.52; 95% CI -1.72 to 0.69; p > 0.05). There was an increase in the incidence of regional (APC 0.77; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.23; p < 0.05) and distant (APC 2.43; 95% CI 1.43 to 3.45; p < 0.05) disease, but not localized disease (APC 0.35; 95% CI 0 to 0.71; p > 0.05). We conclude that the incidence of major salivary gland cancer is increasing, especially small parotid tumors. The incidence of tumors with regional and distant metastasis is also increasing. These findings highlight the need for further research on the etiology of salivary gland cancer, which may reveal opportunities for further public health efforts aimed at prevention.

Glomus jugulare manifesting as angiogenesis of the external ear canal

March 24, 2017  |  Sei Y. Chung, BS; James K. Liu, MD, FACS; Richard Chan Woo Park, MD, FACS; Robert W. Jyung, MD

On otoscopic examination, one will usually see a red-blue vascular mass behind the tympanic membrane, often described as a “rising sun” emanating from the hypotympanum.

Unusual case of sleep apnea in a child

March 24, 2017  |  Lisa Duffy, RN; Anita Jeyakumar, MD, FACS, FAAP

Polyps are considered a disease that requires surgical treatment, but appropriate surgical management is based on the distinction between the different kinds of polyps

How successful is the fitting of digital hearing aids? Implications for the allocation of resources within national health systems

March 24, 2017  |  Petros V. Vlastarakos, MD, MSc, PhD; Alastair I. Cameron, BA (Hons), PGDip, MSc; Thomas P. Nikolopoulos, MD, DM, PhD


We conducted a retrospective study to determine the success rate of initial fittings in digital hearing aid (DHA) users. We also addressed the implications of national health systems' continuing to provide access to these devices. We identified 1,597 consecutively presenting adults who had undergone a first fitting or a new fitting (i.e., an upgrade from an analogue hearing aid in the first or second ear) of a behind-the-ear DHA during the previous year. We further sought to identify all nominal reprogram appointments that had taken place within 6 months after the first or new fitting; we found 460 such appointments (28.8%). Of these, 419 appointments had been for typical reasons other than patient dissatisfaction with the fitting itself-for example, poor hearing, a further hearing loss, an uncomfortably loud hearing aid level, difficulty with speech in noise, an imbalance between bilateral hearing aids, and a faulty or lost hearing aid. Only 41 of the 1,597 first or new fittings (2.6%) were considered unsatisfactory by patients and necessitated a follow-up reprogramming appointment. Overall, DHA fittings were generally successful, as most patients (1,137/1,597 [71.2%]) did not require any follow-up appointment during the study period. Principles of cost-effectiveness demand the maximum practicable efficiency in the utilization of resources to ensure the continuous delivery of high-quality audiologic services through national health systems. This can be achieved by scheduling group appointments to reduce costs and to increase the time allocated to fitting and training patients.

Fiddler's neck: A review

February 20, 2017  |  Calvin W. Myint, MD; Amy L. Rutt, DO; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS


Fiddler's neck is a common dermatologic condition associated with instrument use in violin and viola players. It typically manifests as a submandibular and/or supraclavicular lesion. It is a benign condition, but it may be mistaken for lymphedema or a salivary gland malignancy. Otolaryngologists who treat patients with fiddler's neck should be aware of appropriate management protocols and the need to avoid surgical excision. We obtained informed consent from 3 violinists to present their cases as specific examples of fiddler's neck. In addition, we present a literature review based on our PubMed search for articles about this instrument-induced dermatitis. The literature suggests that submandibular fiddler's neck is caused by mechanical pressure and shear stress on the skin and that it can present as erythema, scarring, edema, and lichenification. Supraclavicular fiddler's neck, on the other hand, is caused by allergic contact dermatitis, and it can present as an eczematous, scaly, and/or vesicular lesion. In most cases, a good history (especially of string instrument use), physical examination, and a patch test are sufficient to diagnose this condition. Management of fiddler's neck includes a topical steroid, proper instrument handling, neck padding, changing the instrument's materials, and/or reducing the amount of playing time. Surgical excision is usually not advisable.

Mechanical venous anastomosis in head and neck microvascular reconstruction as an equivalent to the gold standard

February 20, 2017  |  Eric Thorpe, MD; Yash Patil, MD


To define the most successful and efficient manner to perform venous microvascular anastomoses, the effectiveness of mechanical venous anastomosis in head and neck microvascular reconstruction is reviewed. Head and neck reconstruction with free flap techniques has become the norm and gold standard for large defects. This retrospective, multicenter case series of a single microvascular surgeon's experience with mechanical venous anastomoses specifically assessed the effectiveness of head and neck reconstruction and the complications associated with it. Data were collected from two separate academic centers and are reported from a consecutive series of patients over the course of 10 years. All patients underwent microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck region using venous couplers and flap survival. Flap survival was greater than 98% using mechanical venous couplers as the primary means for venous outflow in this series of 402 consecutive patients and 431 total microvascular flaps. Venous couplers were performed in every instance. The study shows that mechanical venous anastomosis provides a highly effective and efficient means for venous outflow in head and neck microvascular reconstruction, and should be considered equivalent to the gold standard suture technique, even in the most difficult cases.