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June is National Dysphagia Awareness Month

June 20, 2017  |  Amanda Hu, MD, FRCSC

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has estimated that 60,000 people in the United States die annually from complications associated with swallowing disorders.

Results of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy in pediatric patients

June 20, 2017  |  Sat Paul Gulati, MS; Raman Wadhera, MS; Ashok Kumar Khurana, MS; Nidhi Singh, MS; Vijay Kalra, MS; Anju Ghai, MD

Abstract

We conducted a prospective interventional study to evaluate the role of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy in children. Our study population was made up of 20 patients-18 boys and 2 girls, aged 2 to 12 years (mean: 5.3)-who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of nasolacrimal duct blockage that was refractory to conventional medical treatment. In all cases, blockage was confirmed by nasolacrimal duct syringing that demonstrated regurgitation from the opposite punctum. The primary outcome measures for success were resolution of symptoms and duct patency on lacrimal irrigation. At 6 months, 17 patients (85%) experienced complete symptomatic relief, 1 (5%) had partial relief, and 2 (10%) reported no relief. Moreover, the nasolacrimal duct was patent in 17 patients, partially patent in 2, and blocked in 1. We conclude that endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy is a safe and effective procedure in children with nasolacrimal duct blockage when medical therapy and probing have been unsuccessful.

Vocal fold hemorrhage into a physiologic sulcus

June 20, 2017  |  Daniel A. Benito, MD; Jonathan J. Romak, MD; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS

Predisposing factors include traumatic vocal activities such as aggressive singing, throat clearing, coughing, or shouting, especially with the use of anticoagulants.

Endoscopic view of a dumbbell-shaped sphenoid fungal mass

June 20, 2017  |  Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

In cases of sinus mycetoma, endoscopic debridement and adequate drainage of the sinus is a very effective course of treatment.

Infestation of mites in external auditory canal

June 20, 2017  |  Denis Massatsugu Ueda, MD; Ricardo Borges, MD; José Eduardo Poloni da Silva, BS

Dermatophagoides spp comprise one of the most prevalent genera of house mites that, although well-known as allergens, rarely also parasitize the human body.

Salivary epidermal growth factor concentrations in patients with Sjogren syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux

June 20, 2017  |  Claudia A. Eckley, MD; Marco Antônio dos Anjos Corvo, MD; Luis Roberto Sardinha, PhD; Bianca Liquidato, MD; Luiz Vicente Rizzo, MD

Abstract

Sjögren syndrome was chosen as a clinical model to study acinar salivary deficiencies in the development of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). The objective of this prospective cohort study was to compare salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations of patients with Sjögren syndrome with and without LPR and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with normal controls. LPR was diagnosed with positive scores on the Reflux Symptom Index and Reflux and Reflux Finding Score, corroborated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or 24-hour pH-metry. Salivary EGF concentrations of both unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva were established using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the significance level was set at 95%. Twenty-one patients and 19 controls were studied. All patients had LPR and 60% also had GERD. The mean salivary EGF concentration of unstimulated and stimulated saliva in the control group was 1,751.37 pg/ml and 544.76 pg/ml, respectively. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary EGF concentrations in the study group were 2,534.65 pg/ml and 920.69 pg/ml, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Body mass index, presence of erosive esophagitis, or severity of hyposalivation did not significantly influence salivary EGF concentrations. LPR and GERD are highly prevalent in patients with Sjögren syndrome. Unlike previous studies in which significant EGF deficiencies were found in patients with reflux laryngitis and GERD, patients with Sjögren syndrome seem to have reflux caused by a decrease in clearance capacity and not in specific salivary components.

Is there an association between migraine and allergic rhinitis?

June 20, 2017  |  Isil Adadan Guvenc, MD; Mustafa Acar, MD; Nuray Bayar Muluk, MD; Nagehan Erdogmus Kucukcan, MD; Cemal Cingi, MD

Abstract

We conducted a prospective study to evaluate nasal signs and symptoms and to perform allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing to investigate the relationship between migraine and allergic rhinitis. Our study group consisted of 40 patients diagnosed with migraine-22 men and 18 women, aged 21 to 38 years (mean: 25.7). We compared their findings with a control group of 40 healthy adults-15 men and 25 women, aged 19 to 36 years (mean: 25.1). Allergen-specific IgE measurements were obtained with six groups of allergens: fungi, grass pollens, tree pollens, wild herbs, house dust mite 1, and house dust mite 2. We found no significant difference between the migraine patients and the controls in the incidence of nasal signs and symptoms (i.e., discharge, congestion, itching, and sneezing) or inferior turbinate signs (i.e., color and edema). According to the IgE assays, 14 migraine patients (35.0%) were sensitized to one or more allergens, compared with 11 of the controls (27.5%); the difference was not statistically significant. Sensitization was highest for the grass pollens panel in both groups. Even though we did not find an association between migraine and allergic rhinitis, the recent literature supports a correlation between migraine and atopy. The two conditions share common neural pathways and common mediators, and they can be linked statistically in patients and their families. A pathophysiologic association between the two conditions seems more likely than an etiologic association. In this regard, future efforts could be focused on the determination of atopy in migraine patients and the therapeutic implications of this diagnosis.

A comparison of tonsillar surface swabbing, fine-needle aspiration core sampling, and dissected tonsillar core biopsy culture in children with recurrent tonsillitis

June 20, 2017  |  Saurav Sarkar, MBBS, MS, FACS; Abheek Sil, MBBS; Soma Sarkar, MBBS, MD; Biswajit Sikder, MBBS, MS

Abstract

In recurrent tonsillitis, the pathogenic bacteria are harbored in the tonsil core, and therefore cultures of superficial swab samples are not particularly accurate in identifying specific types of core bacteria. On the other hand, the results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cultures of core samples have been closely correlated with the findings of core cultures in excised tonsils, and both methods are far superior to surface swabbing. We conducted a prospective study to compare the accuracy of culture findings from tonsillar tissue obtained by surface swabbing, FNA sampling of the tonsil core in situ, and core sampling of the excised tonsil in children with recurrent tonsillitis. Our patient population was made up of 54 children-22 boys and 32 girls, aged 4 to 14 years (mean: 10.7)-who were undergoing elective tonsillectomy during a 1-year period. On the day of surgery, a surface swab, core FNA sample, and dissected core sample were obtained from each patient and sent for culture. Culture showed that the three methods were in agreement in 34 cases (63.0%). In 9 cases (16.7%) the surface swab culture grew different pathogens from those of the two core cultures, and in 3 other cases (5.6%) the surface swab culture was negative while the two core cultures were positive for the same pathogens. In all, the results of core FNA culture and dissected core culture were in agreement in 46 cases (85.2%); in only 4 cases (7.4%) did the core FNA culture fail to accurately identify the causative pathogens. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of core FNA sampling were 100 and 50% respectively, compared with 82.9 and 30.8% for the superficial tonsillar swab. We conclude that routine culture of surface swab specimens in patients with chronic or recurrent tonsillitis is neither reliable nor valid. We recommend that core FNA sampling be considered the diagnostic method of choice since it can be done on an outpatient basis, it would reliably allow for culture-directed antibiotic therapy, and it could obviate the need for elective tonsillectomy in many cases. However, its feasibility as an office procedure in children remains to be determined.

Synchronous lesions of the right accessory parotid gland and left main parotid gland

June 20, 2017  |  Ba D. Nguyen, MD

Tumoral involvement of parotid glands is usually solitary; multifocality is rare

Correlation among external auditory canal anomaly, temporal bone malformation, and hearing levels in patients with microtia

June 20, 2017  |  Kun Chen, MS; Liu Liu, MS; Runjie Shi, MD; Peihua Wang, MD; Dong Chen, MD; Hua Xiao, MD

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the relationship between external auditory canal (EAC) anomaly, temporal bone abnormality, and hearing levels using objective scoring systems in Chinese patients with microtia. The study population consisted of 106 ears of 94 Chinese patients (67 male and 27 female) aged 5 to 45 years (mean: 12.6) with microtia. The EAC abnormalities were classified into 4 types according to Schuknecht's criteria: type A, type B, type C, and type D. Developmental anomalies of the temporal bone were evaluated by Jahrsdoerfer computed tomography (CT) scoring system using high-resolution CT scans of the temporal bone. Temporal bone malformation parameters were divided into 4 subgroups: ossicular chain development, windows connected to the cochlea, aeration development of the middle ear, and facial nerve aberration. Hearing levels (air conduction and bone conduction) were examined. Outcomes parameters included correlation coefficients (r) and a number of other variables. The total points (10 points) and subtotal points related to ossicles (4 points), windows (2 points), aeration (2 points), and facial nerve (1 point) correlated inversely with the EAC abnormalities. The hearing levels (air conduction, r = 0.396, p <0.01; bone conduction, r = 0.21, p = 0.03) correlated significantly with the EAC abnormalities of Schuknecht's classification. We conclude that the better developed the external auditory canal, the better developed the temporal bone and the better developed the external auditory canal, the better hearing level. The hearing level also can serve as an indicator to determine whether a patient will be suitable for reconstructive surgery.

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