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Prospective, randomized, controlled trial using best-selling smoking-cessation book

July 18, 2017  |  James P. Foshee, MD; Anita Oh, MD; Adam Luginbuhl, MD; Joseph Curry, MD; William Keane, MD; David Cognetti, MD

Abstract

Our prospective, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the self-help book, The Easy Way to Stop Smoking, by Allen Carr, in promoting smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer. We assessed active smokers for their willingness to read a smoking cessation book. Participants were randomized to either receive the book from our department or recommended to purchase the book. All patients received smoking cessation counseling at recruitment. Phone surveys were conducted at short- and long-term intervals to determine if the patients had purchased and/or read the book and whether they were still smoking. One hundred twelve patients were recruited, 52 of whom completed follow-up surveys. Those who received the book for free were more likely to read the book (p = 0.05). Reading the book did not correlate with successful smoking cessation (p = 0.81). Some 26% of the 27 patients who received the book quit smoking compared with 32% of the 25 patients who were recommended the book (p = 0.76). Patients who indicated motivation to quit smoking were more likely to succeed. In our study, smoking cessation did not appear to be influenced by reading The Easy Way to Stop Smoking. Despite 80.8% of the cohort indicating at least a readiness to quit smoking at recruitment, only 28.8% of patients managed to achieve successful smoking cessation at long-term follow-up. Patient motivation remains an important factor in achieving long-term smoking abstinence. Quitting smoking remains a daunting challenge for patients, with multiple interventions likely needed to achieve cessation.

The Sophono bone-conduction system: Surgical, audiologic, and quality-of-life outcomes

July 18, 2017  |  Timothy Mclean, MBBS; Irumee Pai, FRCS; Andrew Philipatos, BSc; Michael Gordon, FRACS

Abstract

We prospectively evaluated the surgical, audiologic, and quality-of-life outcomes in 5 patients-2 men and 3 women, aged 22 to 64 years (mean: 41.8)-who were implanted with the Sophono Alpha 2 MPO Processor. The indications for implantation of this bone-conduction device included recurrent ear canal infections with hearing aids (n = 3), single-sided deafness (n = 1), and patient preference in view of difficulty using a conventional hearing aid (n = 1). In addition to the patient with single-sided deafness, 3 patients had a bilateral mixed hearing loss and 1 had a bilateral conductive hearing loss. Outcomes measures included surgical complications, functional gain (FG), speech discrimination in quiet and noise, and patient satisfaction as determined by the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and the Entific Medical Systems bone-anchored hearing aid questionnaire (BAQ). The only postsurgical complication noted was a minor skin reaction and pain in 1 patient that resolved with conservative management. In the 3 patients with the mixed hearing loss, the mean FG was 13.3, 20.0, 11.7, and 11.7 dB at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, respectively; in the patient with the bilateral conductive hearing loss, the FG was 10, 25, 10, and 15 dB at the same frequencies. Speech discrimination scores with the Sophono device were comparable to those seen with conventional hearing aids. After implantation, all 5 patients experienced a positive quality-of-life outcome according to the GBI, although 1 of them had only a marginal improvement. On follow-up, all patients reported that they remained satisfied with their implant and that they used their device all day long. We conclude that the Sophono bone-conduction system is a safe and effective option that should be considered for patients with a mixed or conductive hearing loss who are unable to use a conventional hearing aid, as well as for those with single-sided deafness.

Cochlear implant electrode array exposure: A delayed complication

July 18, 2017  |  Christina Mishu, AuD; David A. Klodd, PhD; Miriam Redleaf, MD, FACS

Abstract

Exposure of the cochlear implant electrode array as a late complication has been reported rarely in the literature. A retrospective analysis revealed 4 patients presenting with exposure of their cochlear implant electrode arrays from 2 to 17 years after implantation. Data collected from these 4 patients were surgical implantation approach, type of implant, age at implant, interval between implant and complication, surgical correction of the problem, pathology at the time of correction, and length of follow-up after intervention. All 4 patients presented with otitis or mastoiditis. Each had undergone a transmastoid approach with facial recess and cochleostomy and full implant insertion. In 3 cases, the tympanic membrane had retracted to expose the electrode array. In 1 patient, the electrode array had eroded through the external canal, lateral to the facial recess. The exposed arrays were addressed surgically, including explantation/reimplantation for 1 patient. Cochlear implant electrode arrays can become exposed by relative migration of the array and the tympanic membrane. Implant surgeons and audiologists need to be aware of the possibility of this complication. Closure of the ear canal appears to be the most effective surgical intervention.

Thyrocervical trunk pseudoaneurysm presenting as a neck mass

July 18, 2017  |  Taha A. Mur, BS; Mursalin M. Anis, MD, PhD; Ahmed M. Soliman, MD

The typical “yin-yang” appearance of a pseudoaneurysm on ultrasound is readily identified.

An embedded earring backing in the tragus

July 18, 2017  |  Ta-Chin Wang, MD; Kai-Chieh Chan, MD

If signs of infection occur, the earring(s) should be removed and antiseptics or antibiotics applied.

Choanal polyp originating from the superior meatus: An endoscopic view

July 18, 2017  |  Jae Hoon Lee, MD

In most cases, a choanal polyp is identified as an ipsilateral polypoid mass on endoscopy. Therefore, the main symptom of CP is unilateral nasal obstruction.

CT and MRI features in adult patients with orbital subperiosteal abscess secondary to paranasal sinus mucocele

July 18, 2017  |  Chang-Wei Ding, MD; Qiu-Shi Wang, MS; Qi-Yong Guo, MD; Jun Zhang, MD; Zhen-Hai Wang, MD

Abstract

Orbital subperiosteal abscess (OSPA) secondary to paranasal sinus mucocele (PSM) is rare, and it may be misdiagnosed as PSM with orbital invasion or even as a malignant neoplasm. The present study explored the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of OSPA. The cases of 13 patients with OSPA secondary to PSM were retrospectively reviewed. CT had been performed in 12, MRI in 7, and postcontrast MRI in 4. OSPA was revealed as a well-demarcated, spindle-shaped mass that was broad-based and located beneath the superior orbital wall (orbital roof) in 11 and at the medial wall in 2. PSM appeared as an expansile cystic lesion in the ethmofrontal sinus in 7, frontal sinus in 5, and ethmoidal sinus in 1. Because the OSPA was connected to the PSM, it looked like a single lesion involving both the orbit and the sinus. All 12 OSPAs examined on CT were low-density; 9 of the 12 PSMs were low-density and 3 were iso-density. Densities of the OSPAs and PSMs were equal in 4 and slightly different in 8. Five of the 10 OSPAs occurring beneath the orbital roof had unclear boundaries with the PSMs on CT. On MRI, although both OSPAs and PSMs mainly demonstrated hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, the signal intensities were slightly different, and linear-shaped hypointensity could be found between them. Postcontrast MRI revealed arch- and ring-shaped enhancement, respectively, at the edge of the OSPA and the PSM. Septal enhancement separated them more clearly. PSM is an important cause of OSPA in adults. CT and MRI can accurately display these entities' characteristic findings and their anatomic relationship, as well as playing an important role in the differential diagnosis.

Lymph-node-positive cutaneous nonmelanoma skin cancer: A poor-prognosis disease in need of treatment intensification

July 18, 2017  |  Lora S. Wang, MD; Elizabeth A. Handorf, PhD; John A. Ridge, MD, PhD; Barbara A. Burtness, MD; Miriam N. Lango, MD; Ranee Mehra, MD; Jeffrey C. Liu, MD; Thomas J. Galloway, MD

Abstract

Locoregionally advanced nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has an aggressive clinical course characterized by high rates of treatment failure and poor survival compared with localized skin cancers. Our goal was to investigate multimodal therapy for lymph-node-positive NMSC. Data from patients with lymph-node-positive NMSC who underwent surgery and adjuvant therapy at a single tertiary center from 2002 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 1.8 years (range: 0.5 to 8.5). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used to determine the association between locoregional control (LRC) and the following variables: evidence of extracapsular extension, number of lymph nodes positive, largest involved lymph node, presence of a positive margin, and use of concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). Forty-six patients were evaluated, 13 (28%) of whom received adjuvant CRT. CRT patients were younger (p < 0.001) and had a significantly greater number of positive lymph nodes (p = 0.016) than patients who received adjuvant radiation alone. At 5 years, LRC was 76%, PFS was 65%, and OS was 49%. Univariate analysis demonstrated that CRT (p = 0.006), largest lymph node measurement (p = 0.039), and ≥3 involved lymph nodes (p = 0.001) predicted local recurrence. CRT (p = 0.035, odds ratio [OR] 0.20 [95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.90]) and ≥3 involved lymph nodes (p = 0.017, OR 0.07 [95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.62]) remained significant on multivariate analysis. CRT was well tolerated. No grade ≥3 toxicities were observed except for 1 asymptomatic grade-4 thrombocytopenia. Patients with lymph-node-positive NMSC do poorly. Patient selection for intensification of adjuvant therapy needs clarification.

Long-term recurrence-free survival after an unplanned reduction in radiotherapy for HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC: Two cases and a review of the literature

July 18, 2017  |  Jason Liu, BS; David Goldenberg, MD; Salah Almokadem, MD; Henry Crist, MD; Heath B. Mackley, MD, FACRO

Abstract

There is currently no clear distinction between the treatment of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). HPV-positive OPSCC has been demonstrated to be more radiosensitive than its HPV-negative counterpart. Despite this, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC continue to receive a full dose of radiation (70 Gy) outside clinical trials. However, this high dose comes with considerable morbidities, including severe mucositis, dysphagia, and xerostomia. We describe the cases of 2 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC who received two cycles of high-dose cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on 3 separate days, along with concurrent radiotherapy at 50 Gy in 25 fractions for one and 46 Gy in 23 fractions for the other. During treatment, both patients experienced significant acute-phase toxicities-including grade 3 mucositis, grade 3 nausea, and grade 2 dermatitis-and their treatment regimen was stopped before its planned completion. Nevertheless, after a follow-up of 75 and 78 months, respectively, neither patient exhibited any evidence of disease. Late toxicities included grade 1 xerostomia, grade 1 pharyngeal-phase dysphagia, and grade 1 dysgeusia with some foods. We conclude that de-escalating the dose of radiation for HPV-positive patients by 30% and identifying which patients can safely be treated with this level of dose reduction warrants further study.

Lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma) of the oral cavity

July 18, 2017  |  Lester D. Thompson, MD

The most common site is the anterior maxillary gingiva, while posterior, mandibular, and facial gingiva may also be affected.

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