We conducted a prospective study of 116 patients-61 men and 55 women, aged 17 to 64 years (mean: 26.4)-to investigate the effects of septoplasty on olfactory function in patients with septal deviation (SD). The Mladina classification system was used to define SD types, and olfactory function was assessed with the Brief Smell Identification test (BSIT). The BSIT, which includes 12 odorants, was administered preoperatively and at postoperative months 1 and 3. The most common SD types were types 2 (20.7% of patients) and 1 (19.0%), followed by types 3 and 5 (both 16.4%). At postoperative month 1, the mean BSIT score was significantly higher in men than in the women. For patients with types 1 and 2 SD, BSIT scores at 1 month were significantly lower than the scores preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. For types 3 and 4, BSIT values were significantly higher at 3 months than preoperatively or at 1 month. For type 3 SD, the preoperative mean score was significantly lower than those for types 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7; for type 2 SD, the BSIT score was significantly lower than those of types 5 and 6 only. At 1 month, the scores for types 2 and 3 were significantly lower than those for types 4, 5, 6, and 7. At 3 months, the BSIT score for type 2 was significantly lower than those of types 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6; the type 3 SD score at 3 months was significantly higher than those for types 1, 2, 5, 6, and 7. We conclude that septoplasty surgery for patients with a type 3 SD may improve olfactory function. In contrast, we found that olfactory function in patients with a type 2 SD did not improve to a satisfactory degree, even when good nasal patency was achieved with a corrected septum and an enlarged intranasal volume. Our findings should be investigated further in future studies.