We investigated the difference in the biologic nature of typical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basaloid SCC (BSCC) of the larynx by studying proliferation and antiapoptotic markers. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bcl-2 protein in 15 patients with laryngeal BSCC and 15 stage- and site-matched controls with typical laryngeal SCC. We found no significant difference between the two groups in the PCNA index or the frequency of bcl-2 overexpression, nor did we find any significant difference in survival. Our findings indicate that the biologic nature of typical laryngeal SCC and laryngeal BSCC is similar. In addition, our follow-up data suggest that the clinical course of laryngeal BSCC is no worse than that of typical laryngeal SCC.