We conducted a study to determine the presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in 43 previously untreated patients who had presented with a laryngeal lesion. Our aim was to determine if there was any association among H pylori, LPR, and laryngeal lesions. H pylori status was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of biopsy tissue obtained during direct laryngoscopy. The presence or absence of LPR was determined on the basis of patients' reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS), which were based on their questionnaire responses and findings on endoscopic examination of the larynx, respectively. Patients with an RSI of 14 or more and/or an RFS of 8 or more were considered to have LPR. H pylori was present in 24 patients (55.8%) and absent in 19 (44.2%)-not a statistically significant difference. The prevalence of LPR was higher than the prevalence of H pylori; it was present in 30 patients (69.8%) and absent in 13 (30.2%). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01). We found no association between H pylori status and LPR status. Additionally, we analyzed two subgroups based on whether their lesions were benign or malignant/premalignant and found a significant relationship between LPR positivity and the presence of malignant/premalignant laryngeal lesions (p = 0.03). We found no association between H pylori status and either of the two subgroup categories.