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Age-related changes affecting the cricoarytenoid joint seen on computed tomography

August 22, 2018  |  Georges Ziade, MD; Sahar Semaan, MD; Sarah Assaad, MPH; Abdul Latif Hamdan, MD, EMBA, MPH


We conducted a retrospective chart review to compare four characteristics-cricoarytenoid joint ankylosis, narrowing, erosion, and density increases-in patients younger and older than 65 years. Our study population was made up of 100 patients, who were divided into two groups on the basis of age. The younger group (<65 yr) comprised 49 patients (27 men and 22 women), and the older group (≥65 yr) was made up of 51 patients (25 men and 26 women). Findings on computed tomography (CT) of the neck were used to determine whether each of the four characteristics was present or absent. Overall, we found only one statistically significant difference between the two groups: ankylosis was significantly more common in the older group (p = 0.036). When we looked further at the side of these anatomic changes, we found that the older group had significantly more right-sided and left-sided ankylosis than did the younger group (p = 0.026 for both), as well as significantly more left-sided narrowing (p = 0.028) (some patients had bilateral involvement). When we analyzed age as a continuous variable, older age was again associated with significantly more ankylosis (p = 0.047) and narrowing (p = 0.011). We conclude that CT can be useful for assessing radiologic changes in the cricoarytenoid joint in elderly patients during the workup of dysphonia and abnormal movement of the vocal folds.

Treatment outcomes in HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer: Surgery plus radiotherapy vs. definitive chemoradiotherapy

August 22, 2018  |  Dominique Rash, MD; Megan E. Daly, MD; Blythe Durbin-Johnson, PhD; Andrew T. Vaughan, PhD; Allen M. Chen, MD


We performed a retrospective study to compare clinical outcomes among 51 consecutively presenting patients-38 men and 13 women, aged 46 to 74 years (median: 57)-with locally advanced human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative oropharyngeal cancer who were treated with either primary surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (S/RT group; n = 22) or definitive chemoradiotherapy alone (CRT group; n = 29). Within the cohort, 45 patients reported a history of tobacco use, with a median intensity of 40 pack-years. In addition, 39 patients (76%) reported moderate to heavy alcohol use. At baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between the two cohorts in sex, median age, cancer stage, intensity of smoking history, and alcohol use (p > 0.05 for all). Radiation doses ranged from 40 to 70 Gy (median: 70). Follow-up ranged from 2 to 93 months (median: 29). After treatment, we found no difference between the S/RT group and the CRT group in the incidence of locoregional recurrence (36 vs. 24%; p = 0.43) or distant metastases (14 vs. 21%; p = 0.56). Likewise, the difference in 2-year estimates of progression-free survival in the two groups was not significant (66 vs. 62%; p = 0.64), nor was the difference in 2-year overall survival (75 vs. 76%; p = 0.83). We conclude that treatment with either (1) primary surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy or (2) CRT for locally advanced HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer results in similar outcomes. In view of the relatively poor prognosis for patients with HPV-negative disease compared with their HPV-positive counterparts, clinical trials to investigate intensifying treatment may be warranted.

A rare case of odontoameloblastoma in a geriatric patient

August 22, 2018  |  Pratyusha Yalamanchi, MD, MBA; Orly Coblens, MD; Meejin Ahn, DO; Steven B. Cannady, MD; Jason G. Newman, MD


Odontoameloblastoma is an extremely rare tumor derived from odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme. In the fewer than 20 reported cases, odontoameloblastoma is described as occurring in the maxilla or mandible of young men with a history of unerupted teeth. Here we report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented to the dentist for routine cleaning and x-rays, which displayed a mandibular lesion. After referral to multiple providers, a biopsy of two involved teeth was obtained and computed tomography of the neck was performed, revealing a large, destructive lesion of the mandible. Histology was consistent with odontoameloblastoma. The patient underwent wide segmental mandibular resection and scapula tip free flap reconstruction. She recovered uneventfully and continues to have close follow-up, given the risk of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of odontoameloblastoma in a patient over age 50. The goal of the authors is to raise awareness of this rare pathology and its diagnostic and management modalities.

A polyp originating in the middle turbinate and extending to the maxillary sinus ostium

August 22, 2018  |  Jae Hoon Lee, MD

The clinical presentations of nasal polyps include nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, anosmia, hyposmia, and facial pain.

Bilateral massive pharyngoceles

August 22, 2018  |  Norair Adjamian, DO; Lyndsay L. Madden, DO; Libby J. Smith, DO

The differential diagnosis of pharyngoceles can be vast, and misdiagnosis often can occur without proper imaging studies.

Persistent stapedial artery with ankylosis of the stapes footplate

August 22, 2018  |  Fiona C. Hill, MBBS; Bing Teh, MBBS; Michael Tykocinski, FRACS

Persistent stapedial artery may present as a pulsatile middle ear mass or may appear as an incidental finding during middle ear surgery.

Endoscopic view of postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles separated by bony septum

August 22, 2018  |  Jae Hoon Lee, MD

Postoperative maxillary sinus mucocele usually presents 20 to 30 years after Caldwell-Luc surgery involving the maxillary sinus.

Ancillary medications and outcomes in post-tonsillectomy patients

August 22, 2018  |  Ashley P. O'Connell Ferster, MD; Eric Schaefer, MS; Jane R. Schubart, MBA, PhD; Michele M. Carr, DDS, MD, PhD


To investigate the impact of medications on outcomes after tonsillectomy, a retrospective review using the MarketScan database was performed. A total of 306,536 privately insured children and adolescents (1 to 17 years old) who underwent tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy were identified from 2008 to 2012. Pharmaceutical claims identified patients who received outpatient prescriptions for ibuprofen, steroids, or topical anesthetics until discharge and for medications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or montelukast up to 14 days postoperatively. Logistic regression compared prescription claims to outcomes, including postoperative bleeding, dehydration, emergency department visits, and readmissions. Ibuprofen was the only medication associated with increased odds of postoperative bleeding (odds ratio [OR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.95). Patients receiving steroids had lower odds of dehydration (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.84) and emergency department visits (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.88). Odds of dehydration were highest in patients taking ADHD medications (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.66) and topical anesthetics (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.59). Although causality cannot be assumed in observational studies, steroids and ibuprofen should be used judiciously.

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the epiglottis excised with a carbon dioxide laser: Case report and literature review

August 22, 2018  |  Blake Raggio, MD; Neil Chheda, MD


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a benign neoplasm of intermediate biologic potential. It rarely occurs in the larynx, and it has not been previously reported in the epiglottis. We treated a 66-year-old woman who presented with progressive dysphonia and a mass on her suprahyoid epiglottis. The tumor was completely excised with a CO2 laser; no adjuvant therapy was administered. Histopathology revealed that the mass was an IMT. No evidence of recurrence was noted after 6 months of follow-up. We present what we believe is the first case of an epiglottic IMT to be reported in the literature, and we propose CO2 laser excision without adjuvant therapy as an acceptable treatment.

Dacryocystorhinostomy with a thulium:YAG laser-a case series

August 22, 2018  |  Christopher Tang, MD; Scott Rickert, MD; Niv Mor, MD; Andrew Blitzer, MD, DDS; Martin Leib, MD


We conducted a retrospective chart review of 27 patients-7 men and 20 women, aged 47 to 94 years (mean: 71.3)-with symptomatic epiphora secondary to dacryostenosis who had undergone thulium: YAG (Tm:YAG) laser dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Among them, dacryostenosis had been documented in 35 eyes by dacryocystography. The Tm:YAG procedure involved the administration of local anesthesia, after which a 600-μm laser fiber was inserted into the lacrimal canaliculi and then into the nasolacrimal duct. Under endoscopic visualization, the DCR was performed anterior and inferior to the middle turbinate, which created an opening. Silicone stents were then inserted and tied intranasally. In the immediate postoperative period, all 27 patients noted initial improvement. During a follow-up of 22 days to 25 months (mean: 11.3 mo), 24 of the 27 patients (89%) remained symptom-free, while the remaining 3 patients (11%) experienced a treatment failure and required revision surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only two articles on thulium laser therapy for DCR have been previously published, both approximately 25 years ago; both involved the use of a thulium along with holmium and chromium in cadavers. As far as we know, our case series is the largest in the English-language literature that has documented the use of the thulium in laser therapy for DCR, and it is the only in vivo study. We found that DCR with the Tm:YAG laser was an effective and affordable option for patients with symptomatic epiphora secondary to lacrimal obstruction.