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Comparison of anterior palatoplasty and uvulopalatal flap placement for treating mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea

March 14, 2018  |  Suheyl Haytoglu, MD; Osman Kursat Arikan, MD; Nuray Bayar Muluk, MD; Birgul Tuhanioglu, MD; Mustafa Cortuk, MD


We prospectively compared the efficacy of anterior palatoplasty and the uvulopalatal flap procedure for the treatment of patients with mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Our study group was made up of 45 patients who had been randomly assigned to undergo one of the two procedures. Palatoplasty was performed on 22 patients-12 men and 10 women, aged 28 to 49 years (mean: 39.2)-and the flap procedure was performed on 23 patients-14 men and 9 women, aged 28 to 56 years (mean: 41.3). Our primary outcomes measure was the difference in pre- and postoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as determined by polysomnography at 6 months after surgery. Surgical success was observed in 18 of the 22 palatoplasty patients (81.8%) and in 19 of the 23 flap patients (82.6%). Compared with the preoperative values, mean AHIs declined from 17.5 to 8.1 in the former group and from 18.5 to 8.6 in the latter; the improvement in both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In addition, significant postoperative improvements in both groups were seen in mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores for snoring, in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index values, and in Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores (p < 0.001 for all). VAS scores for pain at rest were significantly lower in the palatoplasty group than in the flap group at 2, 4, and 8 hours postoperatively and on postoperative days 4 through 7 (p < 0.002). Likewise, VAS scores for pain during swallowing were significantly lower in the palatoplasty group at 2, 4, 8, and 16 hours and on days 4 through 7 (p < 0.009). We conclude that both anterior palatoplasty and uvulopalatal flap procedures are effective for the treatment of mild and moderate OSAS in patients with retropalatal obstruction. However, our comparison of postoperative pain scores revealed that anterior palatoplasty was associated with significantly less morbidity.

Alternative therapies for chronic rhinosinusitis: A review

March 14, 2018  |  Aaron S. Griffin, MBBS, BSci; Peter Cabot, PhD, BSci; Ben Wallwork, PhD, MBBS, FRACS; Ben Panizza, MBA, MBBS, FRACS


The use of alternative medicine in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) continues to increase in popularity, for the most part without meeting the burden of being based on sound clinical evidence. New and emerging treatments, both natural and developed, are numerous, and it remains a challenge for otolaryngologists as well as general practitioners to keep up to date with these therapies and their efficacy. In this systematic review, we discuss a number of alternative therapies for CRS, their proposed physiologic mechanisms, and evidence supporting their use. This analysis is based on our review of the English-language literature on alternative therapies for CRS (we did not include any therapies that are already recommended by accepted professional bodies). Data collection was performed using the PubMed database (not restricted to MEDLINE due to the nature of the subject matter), the Cochrane databases, and bibliography searches. We found that while many of the alternative therapies we reviewed might have a firm basis in science, they lack any clinical evidence to support their use specifically for CRS. Some emerging therapies, such as therapeutic ultrasonography and phonophoresis, show some promise, based on a growing body of positive evidence. In addition, the use of baby shampoo, thyme honey, and bromelain additives to saline lavage in CRS are all supported by clinical evidence, as is Sinupret, an oral preparation that contains echinacea. However, higher levels of evidence gleaned from large, well-designed, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed before any of these therapies can be recommended.

Bilateral pyriform sinus parathyroid adenomas

March 14, 2018  |  Thomas Muelleman, MD; Sreeya Yalamanchali, MD; Yelizaveta Shnayder, MD


Parathyroid glands undergo a variable descent during embryologic development and can be found anywhere in the neck from the level of the mandible to the mediastinum. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first report of a patient who was found to have bilateral parathyroid adenomas in her pyriform sinuses. A middle-aged woman with renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism presented with dysphagia and was found to have bilateral pyriform sinus masses on endoscopy. We performed direct laryngoscopy and surgical excision of these masses, and they were found to be parathyroid adenomas. Her dysphagia improved postoperatively, and she continues to be followed by her endocrinologist, who manages her secondary hyperparathyroidism medically. The differential diagnosis for hypopharyngeal masses is wide and should include parathyroid adenomas, even in patients with bilateral masses.

An atypical presentation of hemifacial spasm secondary to neurovascular compression

March 14, 2018  |  Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Radia Ksayer, MD; Jeremy Nguyen, MD

Visualization of the vascular structure and the nerve is best achieved in oblique sagittal gradient MR imaging.

Schwartze sign

March 14, 2018  |  Kevin A. Peng, MD; John W. House, MD

The Schwartze sign is estimated to affect fewer than 10% of patients with otosclerosis, and it reflects the increased vascularity of otospongiotic bone in the otic capsule.

The utility of enlarging symptomatic nasal septal perforations

March 14, 2018  |  Philip G. Chen, MD; Stephen Floreani, MBBS; Peter-John Wormald, MD


Nasal septal perforations cause a subset of patients to suffer with significant impairments in quality of life. While smaller perforations can often be surgically repaired, perforations exceeding 2 cm are challenging to close. These repairs are highly technical, and there is a lack of consensus regarding the most effective means to do so. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients with perforation enlargements and have found that, in select patients, enlarging the septal perforation's edge posterior to the head of the middle turbinates has proven effective in relieving symptoms.

"Split to save": Accessing mandibular lesions using sagittal split osteotomy with virtual surgical planning

March 14, 2018  |  Stanley Yung-Chuan Liu, MD, DDS; Douglas Sidell, MD; Leh-Kiong Huon, MD; Carlos Torre, MD


Large, benign intramandibular lesions are frequently removed by resection followed by extensive free tissue transfer or delayed bone grafting. We outline a protocol to remove benign mandibular lesions using sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) with virtual surgical planning (VSP) to mitigate risks involved with this effective, tissue-saving approach. Patients with benign mandibular lesions accessed by SSO with VSP during 2014 were included in this study. Computed tomographic data were imported into VSP software. Using VSP, the exact locations of mandibular lesions and the inferior alveolar nerve canal were delineated. SSO was designed virtually and provided surgeons exact measurements to gain access to lesions and to avoid vital structures intraoperatively. SSO with VSP preserved the cortical mandibular bone and the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle in 3 patients with benign mandibular lesions. Twelve months after surgery, no patient had pathologic fracture, prolonged paresthesia (except for the patient who required inferior alveolar nerve resection), or malocclusion. No patient required bone grafting. There were no functional or aesthetic jaw deficits. SSO is an effective approach to access intramandibular lesions. The technique does not result in loss of mandibular bone, and patients return to full masticatory function compared with those who require resection and reconstruction. VSP may mitigate technical challenges associated with SSO.

Prospective evaluation of the early effects of radiation on the auditory system frequencies of patients with head and neck cancers and brain tumors after radiotherapy

March 14, 2018  |  Akram Hajisafari, Msc; Mohsen Bakhshandeh, PhD; Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, PhD; Mohammad Houshyari, MD; Afshin Rakhsha, MD; Eftekhar Rajab Bolokat, Msc; Abbas Rezazadeh, PhD


Patients with head and neck cancer after radiotherapy often suffer disability such as hearing disorders. In this study, the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on hearing function of patients with head and neck cancer after RT was determined according to the total dose delivered to specific parts of the auditory system. A total of 66 patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were selected. All patients had audiologic evaluation with pure tone audiometry for the frequencies of 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000, and 8,000 Hz before and immediately after completion of treatment and again 3 months later. The cochlea dose volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed-tomography-based treatment plans. At study's end, RT-induced auditory complications developed in 33% of patients. The greatest hearing loss (changes >15 dB) occurred immediately after RT at frequencies of 3,000 (14.5%), 4,000 (12.9%), 6,000 (13.6%), and 8,000 Hz (10.6%), and after 3 months of follow-up, at 3,000 (6.8%), 4,000 (7.7%), 6,000 (10.7%), and 8,000 Hz (12.1%). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated a positive relationship between dose delivered to the cochlea and hearing loss (p < 0.001, r = 0.484). An increased risk of hearing loss was present for patients receiving ≥40 Gy as their mean dose compared with those receiving <30 Gy. We conclude that radiation dose has negative effects on the auditory system. This effect occurs more in high-frequency hearing. The received dose to the cochlea was the main cause of damage to hearing.

Aerophagia and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with Rett syndrome

March 14, 2018  |  Christine M. Clark, MD; Shivani Shah-Becker, MD; Abraham Mathew, MD; Neerav Goyal, MD, MPH


A patient with Rett syndrome presented to our Emergency Department with extensive subcutaneous emphysema in the cervical region, chest wall, upper extremities, and back. Diagnostic evaluation revealed a mucosal tear in the posterior pharyngeal wall and an abscessed retropharyngeal lymph node, but she had no known history of trauma to account for these findings. This report discusses the occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema in the context of a rare neurodevelopmental disorder and proposes accentuated aerophagia, a sequela of Rett syndrome, as the most likely underlying mechanism.

Dentigerous cyst

March 14, 2018  |  Lester D. Thompson, MD

Patients are usually asymptomatic, so these cysts are incidentally discovered during routine dental imaging.