Other ENT Topics

Editors Picks

Y-V alar base reduction

March 18, 2014     Grant S. Hamilton III
article

For alar modification, removing tissue from inside the nostril to decrease width or from the lateral aspect of the ala to decrease flare works well in many patients, but these techniques may produce an unnatural result.

Pediatric cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma with Horner syndrome: A rare case presentation

March 18, 2014     Sanjeev Bhagat, MS; Saurabh Varshney, MS; Sampan S. Bist, MS; and Nitin Gupta, MS
article

Abstract

Schwannomas are rare, benign, slowly growing neurogenic tumors that originate in peripheral, spinal, or cranial nerves other than the optic and olfactory nerves. In the head and neck, these tumors usually arise from the vagus nerve and the cervical sympathetic chain in the parapharyngeal space. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannomas represent a rare subgroup of schwannomas; fewer than 60 cases have been reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely seen in children and adolescents. Because patients typically present with an asymptomatic neck mass and vague complaints, clinical suspicion is important in making the diagnosis. Neural deficits at presentation are uncommon. The presence of features of Horner syndrome before excision is very rare, having been previously reported in only 10 cases of cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma. We report an extremely rare case of a cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma in a child who presented with Horner syndrome. The lesion was successfully excised.

Pseudo third cranial nerve palsy secondary to orbital ectopic lacrimal gland cyst: Management with functional endoscopic sinus surgery

February 12, 2014     Puneet S. Braich, BSc; Jonathan E. Silbert, MD; Andrew J. Levada, MD; and Neil R. Schiff, MD
article

Abstract

An otherwise healthy 13-month-old girl was noted by her pediatrician to have developed a left head turn. The patient was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist, who noticed signs of incomplete third cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an abnormal lesion in the inferonasal orbit that was abutting the ethmoid sinus. After consultation with an ENT specialist, the decision was made to remove the lesion via functional endoscopic sinus surgery because this approach was deemed to provide adequate access while limiting morbidity. Histology of the excised lesion identified it as true ectopic lacrimal gland tissue with cysts. We recognize and comment on the fact that in many reported cases of ectopic lacrimal gland cyst, the tissue was not ectopic at all but instead represented an extension of normal lacrimal gland tissue.

Recurrent chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the nasal cavity in a child

January 21, 2014     Kazuhiro Nomura, MD, PhD; Takeshi Oshima, MD, PhD; Atsuko Maki, MD, PhD; Takahiro Suzuki, MD, PhD; Kenjiro Higashi, MD; Mika Watanabe, MD, PhD; Toshimitsu Kobayashi, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (COREAH) is an extremely rare type of hamartoma. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 case has been previously reported. A 7-year-old girl presented with a case of COREAH of the bilateral nasal cavities. Polypous masses in both nasal cavities were resected endoscopically, and they were histologically diagnosed as COREAH. A large polypous mass recurred 1 year postsurgically on the right side only. A second endoscopic surgery was performed, and the lesion was confirmed to be recurrent COREAH. Hamartoma of the nasal cavity is rare and is generally considered to be self-limiting. This case suggests that nasal hamartomas may have neoplastic characteristics, and therefore require complete resection.

A rare cause of submandibular swelling in a 12-year-old child: Pleomorphic adenoma

January 21, 2014     Puneet S. Braich, MD, MPH; Shohan Shetty, MD; Archana Lingampally, MBBS; Michael S. Ajemian, MD, FACS; Mahesh H. Bhaya, MBBS, FACS
article

Abstract

Pleomorphic adenoma is rare in pediatric populations, where viral and congenital problems are the usual culprits responsible for submandibular masses. We report the case of a 12-year-old child who presented with a painless right submandibular mass that had developed over the course of 4 months. The patient denied fever, erythema, and edema. The mass was diagnosed as a branchial cleft cyst before complete excision was performed. The pattern and etiology of a pleomorphic adenoma in children differs from those in adults. In children, it requires prompt and correct diagnosis to keep morbidity and mortality at a minimum.

Cervical accessory tragus: An unusual pediatric neck mass

January 21, 2014     Thomas R. Lowry, MD
article

An accessory tragus occurs as the result of a developmental anomaly of the first branchial arch, and it may be associated with other branchial cleft abnormalities.

Bilateral dacryocystoceles as a rare cause of neonatal respiratory distress: Report of 2 cases

January 21, 2014     Mélanie Lecavalier, MD; Lily H.P. Nguyen, MD, MSc, FRCSC
article

Abstract

Although obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct is a fairly common finding in newborns, development of a dacryocystocele (nasolacrimal duct cyst) is uncommon. Bilateral dacryocystoceles that expand intranasally and cause respiratory distress in the newborn are rarer still. We present 2 cases of bilateral dacryocystoceles that caused neonatal respiratory compromise. Our first patient, a newborn girl, was managed successfully with probing of the nasolacrimal ducts and endoscopic marsupialization of the cysts. Our second patient, a newborn boy, responded well to conservative treatment with a nasal decongestant, lacrimal sac massage, and warm compresses. While bilateral dacryocystoceles are rare, they should be considered in cases of neonatal respiratory distress and concomitant nasal obstruction.

Tracheal bronchus in an 11-month-old infant

October 23, 2013     Robert Sprecher, MD, FACS, FAAP; Gary Josephson, MD, FACS, FAAP
article

The possibility of a tracheal bronchus should be entertained when a patient presents with recurrent right upper lobe pneumonia or right upper lobe collapse.

Correction of the severely deviated septum: Extracorporeal septoplasty

September 18, 2013     Toby Steele, MD; Jamie L. Funamura, MD; Benjamin C. Marcus, MD; Travis T. Tollefson, MD, MPH
article

Extracorporeal septoplasty represents a novel and evolving technique for the surgical correction of the severely deviated septum.

How closely related are allergic rhinitis, asthma, and chronic sinusitis?

September 18, 2013     Mahmoud Ghaderi, DO, FAOCO
article

Various triggers may have different presentations and thus create a clinically known diverse group of diseases that we have classically grouped as chronic rhinosinusitis.

Comparison of clinical differences between patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis

September 18, 2013     Mustafa Akarcay, MD; Murat C. Miman, MD; Tamer Erdem, MD; Semih Oncel, MD; Orhan Ozturan, MD; Erol Selimoglu, MD
article

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the clinical differences between subtypes of rhinitis patients. Our findings were based on a detailed history and nasal examination. The study population was made up of 910 patients who had at least two rhinitis symptoms. These patients were categorized into one of three rhinitis groups: nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR); there were 212 patients (23.3%) in the NAR group, 473 (52.0%) in the SAR group, and 225 (24.7%) in the PAR group. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on the season when each patient presented, specific symptoms and their triggers, parental history, associated allergic diseases (e.g., skin, lung, and eye allergies), and nasal examination findings. The SAR patients represented the youngest of the three groups. Most SAR patients presented in spring and summer, and this group had the highest incidence of eye itchiness, pharyngeal itchiness, eye redness, and palatal itchiness. In terms of triggering factors, a visit to a green area was significantly more common in the SAR patients, while detergent odor, sudden temperature change, and cold air were significantly more common in the NAR patients. On nasal examination, a pale nasal mucosa was significantly more common in the NAR group. In clinical practice, it is crucial to differentiate between allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. We conclude that relevant information from the history can predict allergic rhinitis. Future studies of prevalence should take into consideration the important findings of our study, including the significance of age and the seasonality of exacerbation of rhinitis symptoms.

The impact of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis

August 21, 2013     Carren Teh Sui Lin, MBBS, MS(ORL-HNS); Gopala Krishnan, MBBS, FRSC(Ed); and Anura Michelle Manuel, MBBS, MS(ORL-HNS)
article

Abstract

Atopy is a syndrome characterized by immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental antigens. The “hygiene hypothesis” stipulates that childhood infections are associated with a lower risk of allergies. Not much has been published about the effects that the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has on allergies, specifically allergic rhinitis. We conducted a study to investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in patients with pulmonary TB before and after treatment of their TB. Our initial study group was made up of 121 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB who were followed up by questionnaire. In addition to demographic data, they provided information about their personal and family history of atopy and their current status with regard to allergic rhinitis. After providing informed consent, all patients underwent skin-prick testing with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Blomia tropicalis allergens before and after TB treatment. Stool samples were obtained to identify patients with worm infestation, and they were excluded from the study. In all, 94 patients completed treatment and follow-up, and their data were included in the final analysis. Of this group, 31 patients (33.0%) exhibited symptoms of allergic rhinitis prior to TB treatment, and 26 (27.7%) had a positive skin-prick test. Following treatment, only 12 patients (12.8%) reported allergic rhinitis symptoms (p = 0.004), but there was no significant reduction in the number of patients with a positive skin-prick test (n = 20 [21.3%]; p = 0.555). We conclude that the treatment of pulmonary TB results in significant relief of atopy, particularly allergic rhinitis symptoms.