Guidelines for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: A systematic assessment of quality

April 27, 2015     Yanming Jiang, MD; Xiao-Dong Zhu, PhD; Song Qu, PhD; Ling Li, MD; Zhirui Zhou, MD


We conducted a study to evaluate the quality of guidelines for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with the exception of nasopharyngeal cancer. Electronic searches were conducted of the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association Infobase, the Guidelines International Network, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, the China Biology Medicine disc, PubMed, and Embase. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligible guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. The degree of agreement among these sources was evaluated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A total of 514 articles were found to be clinical-guideline-related, and 49 guidelines were included in our analysis. Scores were assigned for each of the AGREE II domains: scope and purpose (mean: 71.63% ± 2.80; median: 75%; ICC: 0.76), stakeholder involvement (mean: 43.37% ± 2.96; median: 50%; ICC: 0.93), rigor of development (mean: 45.63% ± 3.84; median: 42%; ICC: 0.83), clarity of presentation (mean: 68.08% ± 2.53; median: 72%; ICC: 0.85), applicability (mean: 32.41% ± 3.03; median: 29%; ICC: 0.92), and editorial independence (mean: 42.55% ± 4.57; median: 42%; ICC: 0.95). We considered a domain score of greater than 60% to represent an acceptable level of quality. We conclude that, overall, the quality of SCCHN guidelines is moderate in relation to international averages. Greater efforts are needed to provide high-quality guidelines that serve as a useful and reliable tool for clinical decision making in this field.

Introduction Head and neck cancer includes malignant tumors arising from a variety of sites in the upper aerodigestive tract, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common histologic type. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) occurs in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx.1 SCCHN is the sixth most common...

Large Haller cell mucocele leading to maxillary sinusitis

April 27, 2015     Jae-Hoon Lee, MD

Paranasal sinus mucoceles are epithelial-lined cystic lesions containing mucus or mucopurulent fluid. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the mucocele.

A 15-year-old boy was referred to our hospital with a headache in the right side of his head and nasal obstruction. Despite treatment with antibiotics and analgesics, he continued to experience persistent headaches and nasal obstruction. He reported no other health problems. Nasal endoscopy revealed a large amount of purulent nasal discharge in...

The myth of learning styles: What medical educators need to know

April 27, 2015     Kenneth D. Royal, PhD, MSEd; Myrah R. Stockdale, MS

While it is true that individuals may have a preferred means of receiving information, there is no evidence that learners actually learn better when information is presented to them via their preferred method.

The notion that every learner has a particular “learning style” has been ingrained into the minds of most medical educators. This concept is based on the idea that people process information differently and suggests that learning is more likely to occur when instruction is tailored to an individual's learning style.

Acinic cell carcinoma of the posterior wall of the pharynx

April 27, 2015     Gökhan Erpek, MD; Ceren Günel, MD; Ibrahim Meteoğlu, MD


Acinic cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 2 to 6% of all salivary gland tumors. It usually originates in the parotid gland; the minor salivary glands and the upper respiratory tract are involved only infrequently. We describe a case of acinic cell carcinoma of the posterior wall of the pharynx in a 21-year-old woman. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of this type of carcinoma at this location to be published in the literature. The mass was excised, and the patient was referred for postoperative radiation therapy to reduce the risk of local recurrence, but she did not keep her appointment and was lost to follow-up.

Introduction Acinic cell carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy. When it occurs, it usually arises in the salivary glands; it accounts for approximately 2 to 6% of all salivary gland tumors.1 The most common salivary gland site is the parotid gland; involvement of the minor salivary glands is infrequent. Acinic cell carcinoma also can develop in the...

Frontal recess polyp extending to the posterior choana-a frontal recess-choanal polyp

April 27, 2015     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

Frontal recess-choanal polyps, as found in the case described in this report, are rare.

A 42-year-old man presented with recurring right-sided frontal and facial pain. He had been treated several times for recurrent right sinusitis by his family physician.

Malignant otitis externa

April 27, 2015     Christina H. Fang, BS; James Sun, BS; Robert W. Jyung, MD

The advent of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics has significantly reduced the mortality of malignant otitis externa.

Conidiobolus coronatus granuloma of the right inferior turbinate: A rare presentation

April 27, 2015     Saurabh Varshney, MBBS, MS; Pratima Gupta, MBBS, MD; Sampan Singh Bist, MBBS, MS; Sanjeev Bhagat, MBBS, MS


Fungal infections are common in tropical countries such as India. Very few clinical cases caused by the Entomophthorales Zygomycetes have been reported. Rhinofacial infection is a rare form of zygomycosis in humans, and only limited information regarding optimal treatment is available. We report here a rare case of rhinofacial Conidiobolus coronatus infection in a previously healthy 18-year-old man who presented with a fungal granuloma of the right inferior turbinate and face. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiologic culture from a tissue biopsy. The infection was successfully treated with surgery and itraconazole therapy for 12 months. The clinical presentation and treatment of this rare, chronic, indolent form of fungal infection are highlighted in this article.

Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for fractures of the maxillary sinus

April 27, 2015     Robert S. Schmidt, MD; Kelley M. Dodson, MD; Richard A. Goldman, MD


We conducted a study to examine the incidence of acute sinusitis following maxillary sinus fractures, as well as the impact of antibiotics in the postinjury period. Fifty patients who presented to our institution with a fracture of the maxillary sinus were prospectively randomized to receive either a nasal saline spray and a 3-day course of antibiotics (either amoxicillin/clavulanate or levofloxacin) or nasal saline alone; there were 25 patients in each group. After a minimum of 3 days, all patients were assessed for acute sinusitis. Follow-up data were available on 17 patients (a total of 21 fractured sinuses) in the antibiotic group (68%) and 14 patients (17 fractured sinuses) in the control group (56%). The groups were balanced in terms of demographics, location of fractures, mechanism of fracture, and time to follow-up. After 3 days, 95.23% of the fractured sinuses in the antibiotic group and 88.23% of the fractured sinuses in the control group exhibited signs or symptoms consistent with or suggestive of acute sinusitis. Very few sinuses in either group showed no evidence of sinusitis: only 1 in the antibiotic group (4.76%) and 2 in the control group (11.76%); this difference was not significant (p = 0.5768). We conclude that while the clinical rate of acute sinusitis after maxillary sinus fractures is high, a 3-day course of antibiotics is not effective in preventing its symptoms in the postinjury period.

Potentially lethal pharyngolaryngeal edema with dyspnea in adult patients with mumps: A series of 5 cases

April 27, 2015     Masafumi Ohki, MD; Yuka Baba, MD; Shigeru Kikuchi, PhD; Atsushi Ohata, PhD; Takeshi Tsutsumi, PhD; Sunao Tanaka, MD; Atsushi Tahara, MD; Shinji Urata, MD; Junichi Ishikawa, MD


In this article we describe 5 rare cases of mumps-associated pharyngolaryngeal edema. To the best of our knowledge, this report includes the first case of mumps-associated pharyngolaryngeal edema in a patient who had previously received mumps vaccination, and these cases represent the sixth report of mumps-associated pharyngolaryngeal edema in the English literature. All 5 of our patients with mumps infection were adults and manifested airway stenosis due to pharyngolaryngeal edema. This edema responded favorably to steroid treatment without tracheotomy. We conclude that a pharyngolaryngeal examination is recommended for patients with mumps infection. Steroid treatment is usually effective against pharyngolaryngeal edema; however, in certain cases tracheotomy may be inevitable.

The role of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps: Immunohistochemical assessment at eight different levels in the epithelial, subepithelial, and deep layers of the mucosa

April 27, 2015     Nuray Bayar Muluk, MD; Osman Kürşat Arikan, MD; Pınar Atasoy, MD; Rahmi Kiliç, MD; Eda Tuna Yalçinozan, MD


We conducted a prospective study to investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Our study group consisted of 24 patients-21 men and 3 women, aged 23 to 70 years (mean: 45.97 ± 11.60)-with nasal polyposis who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery. For comparison purposes, we assembled a control group of 11 patients-6 men and 5 women, aged 18 to 56 years (mean: 29.90 ± 14.22)-without nasal polyps who underwent septoplasty and/or rhinoplasty. We analyzed 36 polyp specimens obtained from the study group (10 from the nasal cavity, 10 from the maxillary sinus, and 16 from the ethmoid sinus) and 11 tissue specimens from the control group (each control provided 1 specimen from the inferior turbinate). We then calculated the mean number of these cells in the epithelium, subepithelial layer of the lamina propria, and the deep paraglandular layer of the mucosa. In general, we found that MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 values were higher in the nasal polyp group. These differences became less so as patients' ages and the duration of polyps increased. We conclude that the most important role that MMP-2 plays in polyp growth may be in terms of perivascular localization and an increase in vascular permeability, which causes inflammatory cell migration and edema in the extracellular matrix. An increase in MMP-2 in glandular tissue may lead to hydrolysis of tissue matrix components. The degraded extracellular matrix may result in fibrosis of the polyps. An increase of MMP-9 in the apical part of the epithelium in the polypoid tissue of the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, and ethmoid sinus may facilitate the epithelial and endothelial cell migration that is observed during polyp development and growth.

Introduction Nasal polyposis is a chronic disease of the upper airway that is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue remodeling that includes extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, and fibrosis. The inflammatory cellular infiltrate in nasal polyposis has been shown to consist of eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast...
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