Massive myiasis in an advanced metastatic neck tumor

April 27, 2015     Tomasz Rowicki, MD, PhD; Mirosława Pietniczka-Załęska, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Only a small number of cases of myiasis have been previously reported in patients with a head and neck malignancy; most of these occurred in patients with primary or metastatic skin cancer. We report a case of massive Lucilia sericata myiasis in the neck of a 57-year-old man with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx that metastasized to the neck lymph nodes. The neck disease manifested as necrosis and skin involvement. Clinical examination revealed an extensive wound within the neck tumor at levels II and V on the right that was heavily infested with maggot larvae. Removal of larvae clusters was performed, and the isolated larvae were subsequently identified as L sericata. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an infestation of L sericata myiasis in a metastasis to the neck lymph nodes.

Introduction Myiasis is the infestation of human tissues by the larvae (maggots) of dipterous flies. Depending on the host-parasite relationship, myiasis can be classified as either facultative or obligate. In the former, the larvae feed on necrotic tissue; in the latter, the adult parasites invade healthy, undamaged tissue.1 Both types are found...

Chronic discharging ear and multiple cranial nerve pareses: A sinister liaison

April 27, 2015     Mainak Dutta, MS; Dipankar Mukherjee, MS; Subrata Mukhopadhyay, MS
article

SCC of the temporal bone might well represent the extreme of the “inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma” sequence, with chronic otitis media representing the inflammation.

A 50-year-old man presented with otorrhea and pain around his left ear on swallowing. He had suffered from chronic otitis media (COM) since childhood, with worsening symptoms during the preceding 4 years. The aural discharge recently had turned purulent and blood-tinged. He also complained of 4 months of nasal regurgitation and left-sided facial...

Use of tragal cartilage grafts in rhinoplasty: An anatomic study and review of the literature

April 27, 2015     Amr N. Rabie, MD; Jerry Chang, MD; Ahmed M.S. Ibrahim, MD; Bernard T. Lee, MD; Samuel J. Lin, MD
article

Abstract

We conducted a cadaveric study to determine the size of cartilage grafts that can be taken from the tragus without distorting tragal anatomy. Our subjects included 7 fresh cadavers-3 male and 4 female (age at death: 61 to 87 yr). Tragal cartilage grafts were harvested while leaving the lateral 3 mm of the tragal cartilage in situ to preserve the anatomic shape of the tragus. The grafts were measured and their dimensions recorded. The craniocaudal dimensions of the tragal cartilages ranged from 15 to 30 mm (mean: 21.6), and the width of each specimen ranged from 10 to 23 mm (mean: 15.3). The thickness of the cartilage was approximately 1 mm. The grafts were slightly curved along their long axis. We also review the literature regarding the dimensions of different grafts used in rhinoplasty, knowledge of which can help in preoperative planning. Tragal cartilage grafts have been used as shield, alar contour, alar batten, lateral crural onlay, dorsal onlay, and infratip lobule grafts. When a straight and/or thick graft is needed, two strips of tragal cartilage can be sutured in a mirror-image configuration.

Introduction The use of cartilage grafts in rhinoplasty has been instrumental in improving aesthetic and functional outcomes. Septal cartilage has been traditionally the graft of choice. However, while it is often sufficient in primary cases, it may be inadequate in secondary cases. When a patient's septal cartilage is deficient because of...

Schneiderian papilloma of the sinonasal tract

April 27, 2015     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
article

The overall clinical presentation of Schneiderian papillomas is quite nonspecific, with nasal obstruction, polyps, headache, epistaxis, and rhinorrhea the most common symptoms.

Use of the chorda tympani nerve in reconstruction of the ossicular chain

April 27, 2015     Yi Qiao, MD; Wen-Wen Chen, MD; Ya-Xin Deng, MD; Jun Tong, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a study to assess the use of the chorda tympani nerve in reconstruction of the ossicular chain. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 141 patients (154 ears) who had undergone middle ear surgery with 12 months of follow-up. The study population was made up of 58 males and 83 females, aged 9 to 83 years (mean: 45). These patients were divided into three groups based on the specific type of surgery they had undergone: in 35 patients, the chorda tympani nerve was used to spring and press the auricular bone prosthesis (CTN group); in 67 patients, the tympanic membrane was used to spring and press the auricular bone prosthesis (TM group); and in 39 patients, a gelatin sponge was used to support the auricular bone prosthesis (GS group). We compared pre- and postoperative air-bone gaps (ABGs) in each group, as well as the differences between these gaps among the three groups. We found significant differences between the pre- and postoperative ABGs in all three groups (all p < 0.01). These differences were also compared between the CTN and TM groups (t = 0.41; p > 0.05), between the CTN and GS groups (t = 2.07; p < 0.05), and between the TM and GS groups (t = 2.51; p < 0.05). In the CTN group, 1 patient experienced temporary postoperative hypogeusia, and another developed a mild case of delayed facial paralysis; both patients recovered within 2 weeks. We conclude that the chorda tympani nerve can be used to repair the ossicular chain to improve hearing without causing taste and facial nerve dysfunction and without the need for a second operation.

Protracted hypocalcemia following post-thyroidectomy lumbar rhabdomyolysis secondary to evolving hypoparathyroidism

March 2, 2015     Usman Y. Cheema, MD; Carrie N. Vogler, PharmD, BCPS; Joshua Thompson, PharmD; Stacy L. Sattovia, MD, FACP; Srikanth Vallurupalli, MD
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Abstract

Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by skeletal muscle breakdown. It is a potential cause of serious electrolyte and metabolic disturbances, acute kidney insufficiency, and death. Recently, rhabdomyolysis has been increasingly recognized following certain surgical procedures. We discuss the case of a morbidly obese 51-year-old woman who developed postoperative rhabdomyolysis of the lumbar muscles following a prolonged thyroidectomy for a large goiter. We discuss how her morbid obesity, the supine surgical position, the duration of surgery (including prolonged exposure to anesthetic agents), and postoperative immobility contributed to the development of rhabdomyolysis. Immediately after surgery, the patient developed hypocalcemia, which was likely due to rhabdomyolysis since her serum parathyroid hormone level was normal. Later, however, persistent hypocalcemia despite resolution of the rhabdomyolysis raised a suspicion of iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism, which was confirmed by a suppressed parathyroid hormone level several days after surgery. In post-thyroidectomy patients with risk factors for rhabdomyolysis, maintaining a high degree of clinical suspicion and measuring serum creatine kinase and parathyroid hormone levels can allow for an accurate interpretation of hypocalcemia.

Multifocal inverted papillomas in the head and neck

March 2, 2015     Jyoti Sharma, MD; David Goldenberg, MD; Henry Crist, MD; Johnathan McGinn, MD
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Abstract

Inverted papilloma is a rare benign neoplasm that usually originates in the lateral nasal wall. It can be a locally aggressive lesion and invade nearby structures. While primarily a nasal neoplasm, cases of an inverted papilloma involving the temporal bone, pharynx, nasopharynx, and lacrimal sac have been reported. We describe the case of a 67-year-old man with a history of nasal inverted papilloma who presented with a recurrent nasal mass and a large mass on the left side of his upper neck. The patient's history included inverted papillomas in multiple locations: the temporal bone, the sinonasal tract, and the nasopharynx. The new neck mass raised a concern for malignant degeneration and metastasis, but pathology demonstrated that it was a benign inverted papilloma. No clear etiology for the new neck lesion was evident except for an origin in salivary gland tissue. However, there was no physical connection between the neck mass and the submandibular gland identifiable on pathologic evaluation. This case illustrates the need for an aggressive primary resection to minimize local recurrence, as well as adequate surveillance to address recurrences early. Given the potential for multicentricity, patients with a typical sinonasal inverted papilloma should undergo a complete head and neck examination as part of their follow-up.

Minimally invasive drainage of a posterior mediastinal abscess through the retropharyngeal space: A report of 2 cases

March 2, 2015     Dan Lu, MD; Yu Zhao, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

Foreign-body ingestion is a common cause of esophageal perforation, which can lead to a fatal posterior mediastinal abscess. Routine treatments include the drainage of pus through the esophageal perforation, thoracotomy, and videothoracoscopic drainage. We present 2 cases of posterior mediastinal abscess caused by esophageal perforation. Both patients-a 44-year-old woman and an 80-year-old man-were successfully treated with a novel, minimally invasive approach that involved draining pus through the retropharyngeal space; drainage was supplemented by the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics and nasal feeding.

Introduction In day-to-day otolaryngology practice, esophageal foreign bodies are common in adults, children, and even infants.1 However, the complication of esophageal perforation is not common, and retroesophageal abscesses caused by foreign bodies are rarely seen.

Thyroid gland follicular carcinoma

March 2, 2015     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
article

The recommended treatment is lobectomy or total thyroidectomy, with or without radioablation. The choice depends on the size and stage of the tumor, extent of lymphovascular invasion, and patient's age.

Thyroid gland follicular carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm of follicular cell differentiation that exhibits capsular and/or lymphovascular invasion while lacking the nuclear features of thyroid papillary carcinoma. While rarely inherited, follicular carcinoma will develop in about 20% of patients with Cowden syndrome, related...

The harm of ham hocks: Foreign body impaction in long-standing multiple sclerosis

March 2, 2015     Anish Patel, MD; Jacqueline Weinstein, MD; Mandy Weidenhaft, MD; Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR
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The incidence of foreign body impaction in neurologic dysfunctional swallowing, such as in multiple sclerosis (MS), has been not widely reported.

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