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Investigation of diagnosis and surgical treatment of mucosal contact point headache

June 14, 2016  |  Jia Wang, MD; Jin-Shu Yin, MD; Hong Peng, MD

Abstract

We aimed to investigate the differences in incidence of nasal anatomic abnormalities between patients with and without headache and the outcome of surgical treatment for the headache patients with mucosal contact points. We conducted the observational study and recruited 107 subjects without headache (nonheadache group) and 78 patients with recurrent headache for more than 2 years (headache group). Study participants underwent high-resolution sinus computed tomography scans, and the incidence of nasal anatomic abnormalities was calculated in both groups. An additional 25 patients with recurrent headache underwent endoscopic surgical treatment. Mucosal contact points were observed in 85.9% of patients with recurrent headache and also in 80.4% of participants without headache. The most common mucosal contact point was between a deviated nasal septum and lateral nasal wall (41.1%). The incidence of deviated nasal septum contacting with lateral nasal wall was significantly different between the headache group (55.1%) and the nonheadache group (40.2%) (p < 0.05). The postoperative pain scores of the additional 25 headache patients with recurrent headache and mucosal contact point who were treated with endoscopic surgery decreased significantly compared with their preoperative measurements (p < 0.001), but only 44% of patients had recovered from headache 7 days postoperatively. We conclude that some patients with recurrent headache may not have a mucosal contact point, and some patients with mucosal contact points may not meet the diagnostic criteria of mucosal contact point headache since pain was not resolved within 7 days after surgical treatment. The diagnostic criteria of mucosal contact point headache before surgery should be reevaluated.

Unconventional fix for an orocutaneous fistula

June 14, 2016  |  Laura Garcia-Rodriguez, MD; Rahil Dharia, BS; Cameron Heilbronn, MD; Tamer Ghanem, MD, PhD

Local risk factors for OCF and PCF secondary to total laryngectomy include infections, exposure of salivary fluids, and radiation.

Asymptomatic medial vocal fold hemorrhagic polyp

June 14, 2016  |  Ozlem E. Kantarcioglu, MD; Amy L. Rutt, DO; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS

This patient did not realize that her voice was pathologic until after she had been treated.

Case of a tick as an unusual animate aural foreign body

June 14, 2016  |  Chao-Hsun Huang, MD; Min-Tsan Shu, MD

The risk of acquiring a tick foreign body in the external auditory canal is generally related to geographic and climatic factors, such as warmer months and areas with forests, high grass, and leaf litter.

Coexistent chronic myelogenous leukemia with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx associated with NOD2/CARD15 mutation in a young adult

June 14, 2016  |  Marcin Fraczek, MD; Agnieszka Stembalska, MD; Pawel Karpinski, MD; Tomasz Krecicki, MD

Abstract

We report the case of a 37-year-old man with human papillomavirus-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx coexisting with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The patient had no history of smoking or alcohol consumption. Within a few months, his rapidly growing tumor was classified as T4aN2cM0. It could be assumed that the rapid increase in the tumor mass, which did not respond positively to treatment, might have been associated with the coexistence of the chronic myelogenous leukemia, which had been found incidentally. Genetic testing revealed the presence of insertion mutation 3020insC within the NOD2 gene, which might be an important genetic predisposing factor, not only for a single tumor such as laryngeal cancer, but also for multiple primary neoplasms. The presence of an NOD2 mutation could significantly worsen the course of the cancer. Therefore, given the relatively high frequency of 3020insC mutations in the general population, it might be reasonable to perform genetic testing on a wider scale for patients with head or neck cancer, particularly in cases that follow an atypical course. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of thorough and periodically repeated laryngeal examinations in patients with chronic leukemia.

Diagnosis and management of a tympanic membrane hemangioma

June 14, 2016  |  Glen Watson, MBBS, FRCS; Amanda McSorley, MBChB, BSc, MRCS; Vivek Kaushik, MBBS, FRCS, DLO

Abstract

Vascular tumors arising in the temporal bone represent 0.7% of all lesions in this area. Hemangiomas confined to the tympanic membrane are exceptionally rare. We report a new case of tympanic membrane hemangioma that arose in 59-year-old man who presented with a 2-month history of constant right-sided pulsatile tinnitus and associated neck discomfort. The lesion and a cuff of healthy tympanic membrane were excised, and the resulting defect was repaired with a temporalis fascia graft. At 3 months, the neotympanum was well healed and the patient's symptoms had resolved. We also review the limited number of previously published cases of tympanic membrane hemangioma, and we discuss the presentation and management of these lesions. Some tympanic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and others present as hearing loss, tinnitus, otalgia, and/or otorrhea. Pure-tone audiometry and high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones are essential to determine the extent of the lesion. An excisional biopsy is recommended because it is curative and it provides histologic confirmation of the diagnosis. Excision requires elevation of a tympanomeatal flap, en bloc resection, and reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defect. Small lesions can be excised via a permeatal or endaural approach, while larger lesions require a postauricular approach.

Antibacterial effects of the povidone-iodine vacuum impregnation technique in expanded polytetrafluoroethylene augmentation rhinoplasty

June 14, 2016  |  Jung Min Lee; Joong Seob Lee, MD; Dong-Kyu Kim, MD, PhD; Jun Ho Lee, MD, PhD; Hae Sang Park, MD, PhD; Ho Jun Lee, MD; Sung Hee Bae, MD; Ji Su Jang, MD; Jae Jun Lee, MD; Chan Hum Park, MD, PhD

Abstract

Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) is a popular graft material for augmentation rhinoplasty. Gore-Tex and Surgiform are two types of e-PTFE; Surgiform has thicker fibrils and is more compact than Gore-Tex. We conducted an ex vivo study to evaluate the ability of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) vacuum pretreatment to prevent infection with these two types of e-PTFE. Gore-Tex and Surgiform specimens were cut into 2-mm3 pieces, which were separated into two groups. One group for each e-PTFE was disinfected with vacuum PVP-I impregnation and the other group was not disinfected. Using the pieces of implant material, swabs were obtained from the nasal cavities of 20 healthy adults, and the specimens were incubated on agar plates and viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We found that PVP-I treatment significantly reduced the bacterial colony counts in both the Gore-Tex and Surgiform groups. In the SEM images, bacterial colonies were observed both inside and outside the untreated Gore-Tex; on the untreated Surgiform, they were found primarily on the surface. Few bacteria were detected in the PVP-I-treated Gore-Tex and Surgiform groups. Our findings suggest that PVP-I pretreatment can reduce the risk of infection associated with e-PTFE.

The Antia-Buch chondrocutaneous advancement flap for auricular reconstruction

June 14, 2016  |  Rohan Joshi, MD; Anthony P. Sclafani, MD, FACS

Helical defects pose a particular reconstructive dilemma because even small alterations in the helical contour can become very visible after healing.

A rare cause of conductive hearing loss: High lateralized jugular bulb with bony dehiscence

June 14, 2016  |  James G. Barr, MRCS(ENT), BSc, BM; Pranay K. Singh, MD, FRCS, (ORL-HNS)

Abstract

We present a rare case of pediatric conductive hearing loss due to a high lateralized jugular bulb. An 8-year-old boy with a right-sided conductive hearing loss of 40 dB was found to have a pink bulge toward the inferior part of the right eardrum. Computed tomography showed a high, lateralized right jugular bulb that had a superolaterally pointing diverticulum that bulged into the lower mesotympanum and posterior external auditory meatus. It was explained to the child's parents that it is important never to put any sharp objects into the ears because of the risk of injury to the jugular vein. A high, lateralized jugular bulb with a diverticulum is a rare anatomic abnormality. Correct diagnosis of this abnormality is important so that inappropriate intervention does not occur.

p53 codon 72 polymorphism and its overexpression in patients with laryngeal carcinoma: Prognostic implications

June 14, 2016  |  Gopika Kalsotra, MD; Ashok K. Gupta, MD; Rijuneeta Gupta, MD; Ritu Rathi, PhD; Rajender Prasad, PhD

Abstract

Abnormalities in the p53 gene are the most common genetic alterations seen in laryngeal carcinoma. No data exist regarding the association between laryngeal carcinoma and a distinct codon 72 variant and its expression. We conducted a prospective study (1) to analyze the p53 codon 72 polymorphic variants in patients with laryngeal carcinoma, (2) to analyze the expression of p53 mRNA in tissues of patients with laryngeal carcinoma using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and (3) to detect p53 antibodies in the plasma of patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after treatment. Tissue and blood samples were taken from 40 patients with laryngeal carcinoma-36 men and 4 women, aged 40 to 65 years (mean: 56)-and 20 age-matched controls with laryngeal conditions other than carcinoma. RT-PCR was used to measure p53 mRNA expression, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine p53 polymorphism. In addition, p53 antibodies were detected in plasma by Western blot testing. The 40 patients were treated with either surgery (total laryngectomy or conservation surgery) or radiotherapy. Tissue and blood samples were analyzed before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. The findings were compared with those of the 20 controls. The results revealed that (1) homozygosity of the Pro72 variant of p53 was present in 26 laryngeal carcinoma patients (65%), (2) heterozygosity for the Pro/Arg genotype was present in 13 patients (32.5%), and (3) the Arg72 variant of the p53 allele was present in 1 patient (2.5%) before treatment. Overexpression of p53 mRNA was found in all patients with laryngeal carcinoma and in none of the controls before treatment; the difference was approximately 3.3 folds higher in the carcinoma group. However, p53 expression was not related to the biologic aggressiveness of these tumors. It is interesting that 4 weeks after definitive therapy, the expression levels of p53 mRNA in the 40 patients were comparable to those of the controls. The p53 antibodies were detected in the plasma of all patients with laryngeal carcinoma prior to definitive therapy and in none of them afterward, indicating that these antibodies represent a prognostic marker in laryngeal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that there is a correlation between p53 overexpression and the development of laryngeal carcinoma. Anti-p53 antibodies can be used as a prognostic marker in laryngeal carcinoma, and they can be exploited in the future to control the response to therapy and to monitor for certain early recurrences before they become clinically detectable.

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