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Surgical management of parapharyngeal space tumors: The role of cervical and lateral skull base approaches

December 7, 2016  |  Arturo Mario Poletti, MD; Siba P. Dubey, MS; Giovanni Colombo, MD; Giovanni Cugini, MD


We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the role of the cervical and lateral skull base approaches in the surgical excision of parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors. Our study population was made up of 34 patients-15 males and 19 females, aged 13 to 73 years (mean: 50.6)-who had presented to us with a PPS tumor during a 9-year period. The 34 cases included 23 benign tumors and 11 malignancies. The 23 benign tumors consisted of 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 schwannomas, 2 paragangliomas, 2 Warthin tumors, 1 oncocytoma, 1 hamartoma, and 1 osteochondroma. The 11 malignancies included 3 cases of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 2 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 1 case each of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, liposarcoma, lymph node metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and cranial nerve (CN) X neurofibrosarcoma. Among the benign tumors, 14 were removed via the transparotid approach, 3 via the transcervical approach, 3 via the transcervical-transparotid approach, 2 via the petro-occipital-trans-sigmoid approach, and 1 via the Fisch type A infratemporal fossa approach. During postoperative follow-up, 5 of the 23 patients with a benign tumor exhibited facial nerve paresis, 2 developed CN IX to XII palsy, and 1 each developed Frey syndrome and CN X palsy. In the malignant tumor group, 4 of the 11 patients were treated via the transcervical-transparotid approach, 3 via the Fisch type C infratemporal fossa approach, 3 via the transcervical-transmandibular approach, and 1 via the transcervical-lateral petrosectomy approach. The neural deficits observed during the postoperative period were more extensive among the patients with a malignant tumor. We conclude that the transparotid and transcervical approaches were adequate for excising most benign tumors. For malignant tumors, large tumors, and tumors with skull base involvement and transcranial extension, the transparotid-transcervical, transcervical-transmandibular, infratemporal fossa, and petro-occipital-trans-sigmoid approaches were necessary.

Evaluation of the efficacy of curcumin in experimentally induced acute sinusitis in rats

December 7, 2016  |  Leman Birdane, MD; Cemal Cingi, MD; Nuray Bayar Muluk, MD; Turhan San, MD; Dilek Burukoglu, MD


We investigated the possible beneficial effects of curcumin (CMN) in the treatment of sinusitis. An experimentally induced sinusitis model was created in rats, and the results were evaluated histologically. Thirty-two healthy, female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 270 to 310 g each, were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. In Groups 2 to 4, experimentally induced acute sinusitis was developed, and the rats in those groups were given saline, sulbactam-ampicillin, and CMN, respectively, for 10 days. Then all rats were dissected, and samples of sinus mucosa were taken. Histologic examination was performed via light microscopy. In the sinusitis + antibiotic group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, vascular dilatation, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, and hyperplasia of goblet cells, were not significantly different from those in the control group. In the sinusitis + CMN group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, and vascular dilatation were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, hyperplasia of goblet cells, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were not significantly different from those of the control group. Histologic examination revealed that in the sinusitis + CMN group, a nearly normal appearance of the epithelial tissue and reduced cellular inflammation in connective tissue were observed. Minimal vascular congestion in connective tissue remained. The efficacy of CMN in acute sinusitis may be related to its potent anti-inflammatory effects on modulation of various inflammatory cytokines. When low side effects are taken into account, CMN therapy may be a promising option in the treatment of acute sinusitis.

Sclerotic effect of oxytetracycline on the submandibular gland: An experimental model

December 7, 2016  |  Oguz Guclu, MD; Asli Muratli, MD; Deniz Arik, MD; Kazim Tekin, MD; Halil Erdogan, MD; Fevzi Sefa Derekoy, MD


Oxytetracycline has been suggested as an alternate therapy for chronic recurrent sialadenitis and sialorrhea. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the sclerotic effect of this drug on the submandibular gland by histopathologic methods. Our subjects were 20 New Zealand white rabbits, which were divided into two groups of 10. The right submandibular gland of the rabbits in the active-treatment group was injected with 0.3 ml of oxytetracycline (100 mg/ml), and that of the controls was injected with saline. Four weeks after the injections, all the glands were removed. Histopathologic studies, including hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome staining, were carried out. The glands were evaluated for tissue inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, edema, lipomatosis, and atrophy. To investigate apoptosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) immunohistochemical staining was used. In the study group, inflammation (n = 9), congestion (n = 9), fibrosis (n = 6), edema (n = 6), and lipomatosis (n = 4) were observed; in the sham group, only lipomatosis was seen (n = 5). The TUNEL assay results for acinar cells were 4.51 ± 1.41% in the oxytetracycline group and 2.08 ± 1.76% in the control group (p = 0.006); the corresponding figures for the duct cells were 7.05 ± 0.87% and 3.10 ± 2.26% (p = 0.001). Based on our findings, we conclude that oxytetracycline might be a viable alternative for the treatment of chronic recurrent sialadenitis and sialorrhea. However, more research in this area is needed.

Nasal gouty tophus

December 7, 2016  |  Pei-Hsun Liao, MD; Kuo-Ping Chang, MD

Surgical removal of gouty tophi is generally indicated when the lesions grow and cause symptoms or lead to cosmetic problems.

Effect of a corticosteroid (triamcinolone) and chlorhexidine on chemotherapy-induced oxidative stress in the buccal mucosa of rats

December 7, 2016  |  Sami Gümüş, MD; Murat Yarıktaş, MD; Mustafa Nazıroğlu, PhD; Abdülhadi Cihangir Uğuz, PhD; Giray Aynali, MD; Şirin Başpınar, MD


Oral mucositis manifests as erythematous and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. Among its various causes, cancer treatment (e.g., chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy) is one of the more well known. It has been widely mentioned that oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation levels increase during the cancer process. Glutathione is one of the major intracellular enzymes used to detoxify oxidant molecules; it exists in both a reduced and oxidized state. Reduced glutathione is used as a substrate to synthesize glutathione peroxidase. We conducted a study to investigate and compare the effects of triamcinolone (a synthetic steroid) and chlorhexidine (a chemical antiseptic) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a chemotherapeutic agent)-induced oral mucositis in the buccal mucosa of 36 rats. Oral mucositis was induced through a combination of 5-FU treatment and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch with a wire brush. The rats were treated with one of four regimens: saline placebo (group I), 5-FU only (group II), 5-FU plus triamcinolone (group III), and 5-FU plus chlorhexidine (group IV). Three rats in the triamcinolone group died of unknown causes on days 7 and 8, and 3 rats in the chlorhexidine group died on days 7 and 9. On day 9, the remaining 30 rats were sacrificed and examined. Buccal mucosa lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in the 5-FU-only group than in the control group and significantly higher in the control group than in the triamcinolone group (p < 0.05 for both). Levels of reduced glutathione were significantly lower in the 5-FU-only group than in both the triamcinolone group and the chlorhexidine group (p < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the triamcinolone group than in the 5-FU-only group (p < 0.01). Histopathologic analysis revealed that treatment with triamcinolone significantly reduced 5-FU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and ulceration (p < 0.001); no such reduction was seen with chlorhexidine. In conclusion, we observed that triamcinolone and chlorhexidine treatment modulated chemotherapy-induced oxidative injury in rat oral mucositis. However, only triamcinolone histopathologically ameliorated 5-FU-induced oral mucositis. These findings suggest that triamcinolone is a useful agent for the management of experimental oxidative injury and oral mucositis caused by 5-FU chemotherapy.

End-of-life decision making in geriatric terminal head and neck cancer

December 7, 2016  |  Kourosh Parham, MD, PhD, FACS; Karen M. Kost, MD, FRCSC

In the oncogeriatric setting, the comprehensive geriatric assessment has been recognized as providing useful information supplementary to what can be obtained via standard oncology status assessments.

Novel management of an isolated comminuted cricoid cartilage fracture

October 25, 2016  |  Aurora G. Standlee, MD, CPT, MC, USA; Derek J. Rogers, MD, MAJ, MC, USA


Laryngeal trauma is a rare occurrence that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Isolated cricoid cartilage fractures are exceedingly rare, and their treatment is highly variable. We describe a case of an isolated comminuted, uncalcified cricoid cartilage fracture in a 34-year-old man that responded well to novel management with suture and 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive fixation intraoperatively and topical ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone applied to the airway postoperatively. We discuss the novel application of cyanoacrylate glue in laryngeal trauma and the potential benefits of topical ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone application to the airway.

Prognostic factors in metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

October 25, 2016  |  Gideon Bachar, MD; Aviram Mizrachi, MD; Naomi Rabinovics, MD; Dan Guttman, MD; Thomas Shpitzer, MD; Dean Ad-El, MD; Tuvia Hadar, MD


Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck poses a significant therapeutic challenge due to its aggressive biologic behavior. We conducted a retrospective study of 71 patients-58 men and 13 women, aged 28 to 88 years (mean: 71)-who had been treated at our university-affiliated tertiary care medical center for metastatic cutaneous SCC over a 15-year period. In addition to demographic data, we compiled and analyzed information on tumor characteristics, the site and extent of metastasis, treatment, follow-up, and outcome. Among the tumor factors, poorly differentiated carcinoma was an independent predictor of poorer disease-free survival, and older age was found to be an independent predictor of poorer overall survival. We found no significant difference in disease-free or disease-specific survival among patients with parotid involvement, neck involvement, or both. In our series, the site of nodal involvement appeared to have no prognostic significance in patients with metastatic cutaneous SCC of the head and neck.

More than 20 years of powered endoscopic ethmoidectomy

October 25, 2016  |  Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

Current operative techniques continue to build on the foundation of functional endoscopic sinus surgery from the work of Messerklinger.

Stapes-pyramidal fixation by a bony bar

October 25, 2016  |  Kai-Chieh Chan, MD

Stapes fixation caused by an ossified stapedius tendon with normal mobility of the footplate, although rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss with a normal tympanic membrane.