Rhinology

Angioleiomyoma on the dorsum of the nose excised via an open rhinoplasty approach

December 20, 2013     Philip W. Stather, MBChB; Zuhair O. Kirresh, FRCS; Paul N. Jervis, FRCS
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Abstract

We describe what we believe is the first reported case of an angioleiomyoma on the dorsum of the nose. The patient was a 65-year-old woman who presented with a year-long history of an intermittently recurrent lump on the right side of the dorsum. The lesion was removed via an open rhinoplasty approach. Histologic examination identified it as an angioleiomyoma.

Recurrence of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma manifesting as a cerebellopontine angle mass

December 20, 2013     Min Han Kong, MS; Jahendran Jeevanan, MS; Thanabalan Jegan, MS
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Abstract

As many as 31% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with intracranial extension. Despite this high percentage, extension to the cerebellopontine angle is rare. The mechanism of tumor spread to the cerebellopontine angle is not completely understood. The most likely mechanism is direct extension to the skull base with involvement of the petrous apex and further extension posteriorly via the medial tentorial edge. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been treated initially with chemoradiation and subsequently with stereotactic radiosurgery for residual tumor. One year later, she presented with an intracranial recurrence of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cerebellopontine angle; the recurrence mimicked a benign tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was ultimately diagnosed as an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal origin. She was treated with palliative chemotherapy.

A preliminary study of the use of ultrasound in defining nasal fractures: Criteria for a confident diagnosis

October 23, 2013     Farhad Ardeshirpour, MD; Keith M. Ladner, MD; Carol G. Shores, MD, PhD; William W. Shockley, MD
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Abstract

Nasal fractures are usually diagnosed by clinical examination, with or without the support of imaging studies. While plain-film radiography lacks sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing nasal fractures, and computed tomography (CT) is not always practical or cost-effective, ultrasonography (US) may be useful in this regard. The criteria by which adult nasal fractures are reliably identified on US must be clear. We conducted a preliminary prospective, controlled, observational study to define the appearance of nasal fractures on US. We used US to image 12 patients with a clinical or radiologic (CT or x-ray) diagnosis of nasal fracture. All patients presented within 2 weeks of their injury. For comparison purposes, we also obtained US images from 12 control subjects who had no history of nasal trauma or surgery. We found that we could confidently diagnose nasal fractures on lateral-view US on the basis of a disruption of bone continuity and/or displacement of fracture segments. However, our findings were not as consistent with dorsal-view US, and we do not believe it is adequate for diagnosis. We conclude that lateral US can be used to detect nasal fractures in adults, but further studies are needed to assess its sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness, and practicality.

Glass in the frontal sinus: 28-year delayed presentation

October 23, 2013     Alice K. Guidera, MBChB, BSc; Peter M. Dixon, MBBS, FRCS; Hans R. Stegehuis, MBChB, FRACS
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Abstract

Reports of delayed presentation of foreign bodies in the frontal sinus are infrequent and likely to become rarer with the widespread availability of computed tomography in the last 2 decades. We present a case in which glass from a road traffic injury was found in the frontal sinus, causing symptoms of frontal sinusitis 28 years after the initial injury. We also present a review of the literature.

Endoscopic view of the sphenoid sinus seen through the posterior ethmoid sinus

October 23, 2013     Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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Care must be taken when entering the sphenoid sinus, to dissect inferiorly and medially to avoid injury to the vital structures of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus.

Endoscopic closure of a frontocutaneous fistula

October 23, 2013     Alexandros Tsikoudas, DLO, FRCS(Otol), FRCS(ORL-HNS); Christos Georgalas, PhD, MRCS, FRCS(ORL-HNS)
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Abstract

A frontocutaneous fistula is a rare sequela of frontal sinus pathology. Management via an endoscopic approach is not frequently reported in the literature. We describe such an approach with the aid of still photography and imaging plus videoendoscopy, and we discuss the current literature.

A case and a series of published cases of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) in which long-standing paraneoplastic SIADH had preceded ENB diagnosis

October 23, 2013     Uri Gabbay, MD, MPH; Leonor Leider-Trejo, MD; Gideon Marshak, MD; Merav Gabbay, MD; and Dan M. Fliss, MD
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Abstract

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor of the olfactory mucosa. We treated a 50-year-old man with an ENB in the right ethmoid sinus who had been diagnosed 16 years earlier with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) of unknown cause. When the ENB was surgically removed, the patient's osmoregulation returned to normal-that is, his SIADH resolved completely, which suggested that the SIADH was paraneoplastic in nature. These events prompted us to review the literature to determine if there is an association between our patient's ENB and his SIADH in general and between long-standing SIADH that precedes ENB in particular. Based on our review and an extrapolation of data, we have estimated that 1,300 cases of ENB have occurred since it was first described in 1924. Of these cases, SIADH was reported in 26 cases, including ours, which represents an estimated prevalence of 2% (although we believe this is actually an underestimation of the true prevalence). Of the 26 cases, SIADH had already been present in 14 patients (54%) prior to their diagnosis of EBN for a median duration of 3.5 years. We recommend that patients with newly diagnosed EBN be evaluated for SIADH. In those who are SIADH-positive, a resolution of SIADH should be expected once the ENB has been removed. If this does not occur, one should suspect that the ENB was not completely removed. If SIADH resolves but later recurs during follow-up, then a relapse should be suspected. In long-standing SIADH of unknown etiology, nasal sinus imaging should be considered.

Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma originating in the inferior turbinate

September 18, 2013     Jae Hoon Lee, MD; Ha Min Jeong, MD
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An extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma should be differentiated from other vascular tumors, particularly a hemangioma.

A case of a nasal polyp originating in the cribriform plate

September 18, 2013     Osman Kursat Arikan, MD; Nuray Bayar Muluk, MD; Ozden Cirpar, MD
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Abstract

Nasal polyps were once believed to originate in sinus cavities, and from there to pass through ostia and into the nasal cavity. However, data gained from subsequent anatomic studies revealed that they can actually originate in numerous locations in the sinonasal area. We report a case of a nasal polyp that originated in the cribriform plate, which is a very rare site of origin for a nasal polyp.

Progressive blindness caused by an unusual sphenoid sinus dehiscence

September 18, 2013     Mariana Marquez, MD; Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Jeremy Nguyen, MD; Harold R. Neitzschman, MD, FACR, FACNM, FAAP
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The optic nerve and other important structures in the anterior skull base can be involved in chronic sphenoidal sinus disease.

Comparison of clinical differences between patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis

September 18, 2013     Mustafa Akarcay, MD; Murat C. Miman, MD; Tamer Erdem, MD; Semih Oncel, MD; Orhan Ozturan, MD; Erol Selimoglu, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the clinical differences between subtypes of rhinitis patients. Our findings were based on a detailed history and nasal examination. The study population was made up of 910 patients who had at least two rhinitis symptoms. These patients were categorized into one of three rhinitis groups: nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR); there were 212 patients (23.3%) in the NAR group, 473 (52.0%) in the SAR group, and 225 (24.7%) in the PAR group. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on the season when each patient presented, specific symptoms and their triggers, parental history, associated allergic diseases (e.g., skin, lung, and eye allergies), and nasal examination findings. The SAR patients represented the youngest of the three groups. Most SAR patients presented in spring and summer, and this group had the highest incidence of eye itchiness, pharyngeal itchiness, eye redness, and palatal itchiness. In terms of triggering factors, a visit to a green area was significantly more common in the SAR patients, while detergent odor, sudden temperature change, and cold air were significantly more common in the NAR patients. On nasal examination, a pale nasal mucosa was significantly more common in the NAR group. In clinical practice, it is crucial to differentiate between allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. We conclude that relevant information from the history can predict allergic rhinitis. Future studies of prevalence should take into consideration the important findings of our study, including the significance of age and the seasonality of exacerbation of rhinitis symptoms.

An unusual case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the nose

September 18, 2013     Sheng-Chang Chiu, MD
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Abstract

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare benign vascular lesion that most commonly involves the ear and preauricular area. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with a progressively enlarging mass of the left nasal vestibule. The lesion was diagnosed as a nasal ALHE and treated with surgical excision. There were no complications.

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