Rhinology

Schneiderian papilloma of the sinonasal tract

April 27, 2015     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
article

The overall clinical presentation of Schneiderian papillomas is quite nonspecific, with nasal obstruction, polyps, headache, epistaxis, and rhinorrhea the most common symptoms.

Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for fractures of the maxillary sinus

April 27, 2015     Robert S. Schmidt, MD; Kelley M. Dodson, MD; Richard A. Goldman, MD
article

Abstract

We conducted a study to examine the incidence of acute sinusitis following maxillary sinus fractures, as well as the impact of antibiotics in the postinjury period. Fifty patients who presented to our institution with a fracture of the maxillary sinus were prospectively randomized to receive either a nasal saline spray and a 3-day course of antibiotics (either amoxicillin/clavulanate or levofloxacin) or nasal saline alone; there were 25 patients in each group. After a minimum of 3 days, all patients were assessed for acute sinusitis. Follow-up data were available on 17 patients (a total of 21 fractured sinuses) in the antibiotic group (68%) and 14 patients (17 fractured sinuses) in the control group (56%). The groups were balanced in terms of demographics, location of fractures, mechanism of fracture, and time to follow-up. After 3 days, 95.23% of the fractured sinuses in the antibiotic group and 88.23% of the fractured sinuses in the control group exhibited signs or symptoms consistent with or suggestive of acute sinusitis. Very few sinuses in either group showed no evidence of sinusitis: only 1 in the antibiotic group (4.76%) and 2 in the control group (11.76%); this difference was not significant (p = 0.5768). We conclude that while the clinical rate of acute sinusitis after maxillary sinus fractures is high, a 3-day course of antibiotics is not effective in preventing its symptoms in the postinjury period.

Frontal recess polyp extending to the posterior choana-a frontal recess-choanal polyp

April 27, 2015     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
article

Frontal recess-choanal polyps, as found in the case described in this report, are rare.

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma as a third primary neoplasm: A case report and review of the literature

April 27, 2015     John J. Chi, MD; Michael D. Feldman, MD; James N. Palmer, MD
article

Abstract

A 71-year-old man with a history of a pituitary prolactinoma and metastatic pancreatic carcinoma presented with epistaxis, visual changes, bilateral ophthalmoplegia, involuntary closure of the left eye, and ptosis of the right eye. The patient was found to have a soft-tissue mass in the posterior nasal cavity with extension through the floor of the sella turcica, the sphenoid sinuses, cavernous sinuses, and suprasellar region. The patient was subsequently taken to the operating room. Intraoperative frozen section of the sinonasal mass demonstrated carcinoma. The final pathology of the mass revealed sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC)-the patient's second skull base lesion and third primary neoplasm. SNUC is a rare neoplasm of the sinonasal cavities that rapidly progresses from symptom onset to mortality in the presence of aggressive multidimensional therapies. Given its poor prognosis and possibly devastating treatments, an open discussion of treatment options between physicians and the patient is of the utmost importance. Although SNUC is rare, it is important that practicing otolaryngologists, neurosurgeons, and skull base surgeons be familiar with this disease process-especially when caring for patients with a history of a benign skull base neoplasm and concern for possible recurrence, as was the case in this report.

Septic arthritis: A unique complication of nasal septal abscess

March 2, 2015     Steven M. Olsen, MD; Cody A. Koch, MD, PhD; Dale C. Ekbom, MD
article

Abstract

Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the muco-perichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future.

Maxillary sinus cyst containing a bone chip

March 2, 2015     Jae-Hoon Lee, MD
article

If bone fragments in the sinus can be removed, the patient's prognosis is usually excellent.

Endoscopic view of a medial ethmoid drainage pathway into the middle meatus

February 2, 2015     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
article

The ostium of the ethmoid bulla is often found in the hiatus semilunaris superior, but that it can also be found in the anterior or lateral wall of the bulla, the ethmoid infundibulum, the hiatus semilunaris inferior, or the retrobullar recess.

Primary thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinoma of the nasal septum: A case report

February 2, 2015     Kerem Ozturk, MD; Rasit Midilli, MD; Ali Veral, MD; Yesim Ertan, MD; Bulent Karci, MD
article

Abstract

Primary thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinomas are extremely rare neoplasms that generally originate in the nasopharynx. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinoma that originated in the nasal septum. The tumor was surgically removed, and the patient showed no evidence of local recurrence during 4 years of follow-up.

Palliative endoscopic surgery for sinonasal metastases: A case report and literature review

February 2, 2015     Jason M. Roberts, MD; Christopher Brook, MD; Steven Parnes, MD
article

Abstract

Cancer metastatic to the paranasal sinuses often presents with ophthalmologic and facial deformities, as well as sinonasal complaints. These diminutive tumors are difficult to effectively treat, often leading to poor quality of life. Although breast cancer is a common cancer affecting more than 150,000 women each year,1 rarely is metastatic breast cancer found within the sinuses. We report our palliative treatment approach and outcomes of a 40-year-old patient with breast cancer metastatic to the paranasal sinuses. While providing a better understanding of this tumor's metastasis through a review of the literature, our report describes the role of palliative surgery for metastases to the paranasal sinuses.

Effects of nasal saline lavage on pediatric sinusitis symptoms and disease-specific quality of life: A case series of 10 patients

February 2, 2015     Sandra Y. Lin, MD; Katherine M. Baugher, DO; David J. Brown, MD; Stacey L. Ishman, MD
article

Abstract

We conducted a prospective study to assess (1) the effects of daily nasal irrigation in children with chronic sinonasal symptoms and (2) the impact that treatment had on disease-specific quality of life as assessed by a validated instrument, the five-item Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5), and by an overall nasal quality-of-life (NQL) score based on a 10-point faces scale. Our patient population was made up of 10 children-7 girls and 3 boys, aged 3 to 9 years (mean: 6.1)-who had presented with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis for more than 3 months and who had not responded to previous medical management. Patients were administered nasal saline lavage daily for 1 month. These patients and/or their caregivers completed an SN-5 questionnaire upon entry into the study and at the completion of treatment. At study's end, a comparison of pre- and post-treatment scores with paired Student t tests showed that the mean total SN-5 score improved significantly over baseline, falling 45% from 21.4 to 11.7 (p = 0.0002). Moreover, significant overall improvement was seen in each of the five subcategories of the SN-5 survey (p = 0.0009 to 0.038). The NQL scores also improved significantly from 4.7 to 7.7 (p = 0.0034). Compliance with nasal lavage was generally good among the 10 patients, as 8 of them used at least 75% of the recommended quantity of saline at least once a day. During a follow-up period that ranged from 2 to 23 months (mean: 10.4), only 1 patient required an adenoidectomy for symptom control. The results of this pilot study suggest that nasal saline lavage may significantly alleviate chronic sinonasal symptoms and improve disease-specific quality of life in children with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract with metastasis to the liver: A case report and literature review

February 2, 2015     Boon Ping Toe, FRCR(Lond); Norlisah Ramli, FRCR(Lond); Sze Yin Lam, MRad(Mal); Kum Thong Wong, FRCPath(Lond); Narayanan Prepageran, FRCS(Edin)
article

Abstract

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma. To date, only 95 cases of sinonasal BSCC have been reported in the English-language literature, and they account for 5% of all cases of head and neck BSCC. We describe what we believe is only the second reported case of a sinonasal tract BSCC that metastasized to the liver. The patient was a 36-year-old woman who presented with right-sided nasal obstruction and a foul-smelling discharge. Clinical examination and imaging identified a large lobulated enhancing mass in the right nasal cavity. Following excision of the mass, the patient was scheduled for radiotherapy. However, before it could be administered, follow-up imaging detected a metastasis to the liver and lung, and the patient was switched to chemotherapy. Initially, she responded well clinically, but at 5 months postoperatively, a follow-up CT showed an increasing metastatic presence in the liver and bone. The patient died of her disease 1 year after surgery.

Endoscopic view of nasopharyngeal scarring

January 19, 2015     Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
article

A finding of fibrous or scar tissue in the nasopharynx usually indicates previous trauma or surgery in the area. The most common iatrogenic cause is adenoidectomy.

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