Laryngology

Hemangiopericytoma of the parapharyngeal space

September 18, 2013     Brian A. Fishero, MD; Kelly M. Guido, MD; Howard S. McGuff, DDS; Josefine M. Heim-Hall, MD; Frank R. Miller, MD, FACS
article

Abstract

Hemangiopericytomas of the head and neck are rarely found in the parapharyngeal space. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with a globus sensation in her throat. Imaging detected a left submucosal oropharyngeal mass that extended into the prestyloid parapharyngeal space. The tumor was surgically excised en bloc. Histopathologic examination identified it as a hemangiopericytoma. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

Ice-cream stick injury resembling torus palatinus

September 18, 2013     Rumi Khajotia, MBBS, MD, FAMA, FAMS; S.T. Kew, FRCP
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The size of a torus palatinus usually varies from barely discernible to very large, and it may be flat or lobular.

Larynx: Nodules and polyps

September 18, 2013     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
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Nodules usually affect the anterior to middle thirds of the true vocal folds, and they are nearly always bilateral.

Vocal fold atrophy after paralysis

September 18, 2013     Adam Rubin, MD; Jason D. Chesney, DO
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Much debate currently exists as to the timing of vocal fold atrophy following denervation and as to why some patients maintain excellent muscle tone despite long-standing nerve injury.

Human papillomavirus and tobacco use in tongue base cancers

August 21, 2013     Daniel L. Stoler, PhD; Philip J. Smaldino, MS; Huferesh K. Darbary, PhD; Maureen A. Sullivan, DDS; Saurin R. Popat, MD, MBA; Wesley L. Hicks Jr., MD; Mihai Merzianu, MD; Daniel P. Gaile, PhD; Garth R. Anderson, PhD; and Thom R. Loree, MD, FACS
article

Abstract

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) infection and tobacco use are associated with human oropharyngeal cancers. We conducted a study of the role of HPV and tobacco use in base of the tongue (BOT) cancers. DNA from 34 such cancers was subjected to HPV-16 and HPV-18-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were obtained from each patient's medical record. HPV-16 was detected in 68% of tumors. Tobacco use was the only factor found to be significantly associated with HPV status. Tumors from 100% of patients who had never used tobacco tested positive for HPV, compared with only 56% of those who had ever used tobacco (Fisher exact test, p = 0.024). All tumors were associated with either tobacco use or HPV infection. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that either tobacco use or HPV infection is necessary to the etiology of BOT tumors, and they suggest that tongue base carcinoma may be prevented by combining HPV vaccination with tobacco avoidance.

Multilevel treatment of moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea with bone-anchored pharyngeal suspension sutures

August 21, 2013     Eric E. Berg, MD; Frederick Bunge, MD; and John M. DelGaudio, MD
article

Abstract

Success rates for the surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vary, with phase I surgical success ranging from 40 to 75%. Pharyngeal suspension suture procedures are minimally invasive techniques with a reported efficacy of 20 to 78%. We conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of pharyngeal suspension suture procedures in conjunction with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) as a multilevel treatment for OSA. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 30 adults-22 men and 8 women, with a mean age of 49 years and a mean BMI of 30.6-who were treated at a tertiary care academic medical center and a private otolaryngology practice. All patients had moderate or severe OSA, and all had failed continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Of this group, 20 patients underwent tongue base and hyoid suspension (TBHS) and 10 underwent tongue base suspension (TBS) alone; 23 patients had undergone concurrent or previous UPPP, 13 in the TBHS group and all 10 in the TBS group. Polysomnography was performed an average of 3.9 months postoperatively. Surgical success was defined as a reduction in respiratory distress index (RDI) of more than 50% and a postoperative RDI of 20 or less. The overall surgical success rate was 63% (19/30). In the surgical success group, the mean RDI fell from 44.6 to 9.4 (p < 0.0001); in the surgical failure group, the mean RDI rose from 41.3 to 48.9 (p = 0.58). There were 6 complications: 3 seromas, 2 suture breaks, and 1 dislodged screw. We conclude that pharyngeal suspension suture procedures as part of the multilevel treatment of moderate and severe OSA yields better outcomes than conventional surgical treatments with the added benefit of being minimally invasive.

Iatrogenic epiglottic inversion during intubation

August 21, 2013     Adam Rourke, DO and Adam Rubin, MD
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The otolaryngologist must recognize when the epiglottis is inverted or risk inserting the laryngoscope too far and traumatizing the vocal folds.

Transnasal esophagoscopy and the diagnosis of a mediastinal foregut duplication cyst

August 21, 2013     Amarbir S. Gill, BS and Jennifer L. Long, MD, PhD
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Foregut duplication cysts are true mucus-filled cysts lined with a thin epithelial layer, arising from either bronchogenic, esophageal, or neuroenteric precursor tissue.

Traumatic tracheostomy and spent bullet aspiration after a gunshot injury: A case report

August 21, 2013     Jack Barasa, MD; Peter M. Nthumba, MD; and Peter Bird, FRACS
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Abstract

Penetrating tracheal injuries are rare. Even rarer is the finding of intrabronchial foreign bodies caused by penetrating objects. We report a patient who experienced a gunshot injury to the trachea and mandible. The tracheal wound was debrided and used as a tracheostomy; a spent bullet in the bronchial tree was missed on initial evaluation but later successfully retrieved bronchoscopically. Spent bullet aspiration is a very rare occurrence. A careful examination of radiographs is essential to aid with the diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is the best means of bullet retrieval. Management of any associated injuries is made easier after the airway is secured.

Peripheral osteoma of the hard palate

August 21, 2013     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO, PhD
article

Abstract

Peripheral osteomas of the hard palate are relatively rare. Two cases of osteoma of the hard palate are reported, along with a review of the literature.

A systematic review of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for laryngopharyngeal reflux

August 21, 2013     Uchechukwu C. Megwalu, MD
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Abstract

The author performed a MEDLINE literature search to identify and evaluate all randomized, placebo-controlled trials of the treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) with an oral proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) that have been published since 1966. Eight such trials that included a total of 358 patients were identified. These eight studies contained seven different definitions of LPR. Validity scores (maximum: 9) ranged from 5 to 9 (mean: 7.5). One study investigated low-dose once-daily therapy, two studies investigated low-dose twice-daily therapy, and five studies investigated high-dose twice-daily therapy. Outcomes measures were not consistent among studies, and most studies used unvalidated outcomes measures. Only two studies found that a PPI was significantly better than placebo-one in the low-dose twice-daily group and one in the high-dose twice-daily group. The author concludes that the current body of literature is insufficient to draw reliable conclusions about the efficacy of PPI therapy for the treatment of LPR.

Comparison of complication rates associated with stapling and traditional suture closure after total laryngectomy for advanced cancer

August 21, 2013     Brett A. Miles, DDS, MD; Deborah Larrison, MD; and Larry L. Myers, MD
article

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective, matched-cohort, case-control study to compare complication rates associated with two wound closure procedures-stapling vs. traditional hand suturing-following total laryngectomy. Our study population was made up of 42 consecutively presenting patients-38 men and 4 women, aged 34 to 92 years (mean: 60.3) whose pharyngotomies were amenable to primary closure. Of this group, 37 patients had active endolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2 patients had inactive endolaryngeal SCC, 2 patients had thyroid cancer, and 1 patient had been treated for chronic aspiration. A total of 26 patients (61.9%) had undergone traditional suture closure of the neopharynx (suture group) and 16 patients (38.1%) had undergone closure with a linear stapling device (staple group). Other than the fact that the patients in the staple group were significantly older than those in the suture group (median: 71.0 vs. 56.5 yr, p = 0.002), there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of comorbidities or cricopharyngeal myotomy, tracheoesophageal puncture, or neck dissection. There was a total of 8 postoperative infections-5 in the staple group (31.3%) and 3 in the suture group (11.5%)-not a statistically significant difference. Fistulas occurred in 4 staple patients (25.0%) and 6 suture patients (23.1%)-again, not statistically significant. We conclude that in appropriately selected patients, primary closure of the neopharynx can be safely and effectively achieved with a linear stapling device.

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