Nasopharynx

Early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using IgA anti-EBNA1 + VCA-p18 serology assay

March 18, 2014     Achmad C. Romdhoni, MD, PhD; Nurul Wiqoyah, MS; Widodo Ario Kentjono, MD, PhD
article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common head and neck malignancy in Indonesia. Overall, it ranks fourth in males and sixth in females as the most prevalent type of cancer in that country. The data show that in the year 2011, NPC incidence was considered to be intermediate (6.2/100,000 population per year). Through histopathologic examination, about 70 to 80% of these cases were found to be type III according to the WHO classificaton. NPC carries an excellent prognosis if treated early, but most patients presented with stage III to IV disease, which negatively affected the cure rate and increased the mortality rate. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgA serology has been established as an effective marker for NPC. Therefore, biologic markers, DNA, and/or antibody-based diagnosis is needed to decrease NPC cases. A screening program needs to be developed that will identify people at high risk of NPC and those who are in the early stage of the disease. In this study, 20 samples were collected from posttherapy patients. An otolaryngologic examination, histopathology of nasopharyngeal tissue, and blood testing for serologic markers were performed. IgA anti-EBNA1 + VCA-p18 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed positive impact as a tool for confirming the diagnosis of NPC, but it still has to be combined with other specific diagnostic tools for post-therapy monitoring and for determining prognosis.

Recurrence of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma manifesting as a cerebellopontine angle mass

December 20, 2013     Min Han Kong, MS; Jahendran Jeevanan, MS; Thanabalan Jegan, MS
article

Abstract

As many as 31% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with intracranial extension. Despite this high percentage, extension to the cerebellopontine angle is rare. The mechanism of tumor spread to the cerebellopontine angle is not completely understood. The most likely mechanism is direct extension to the skull base with involvement of the petrous apex and further extension posteriorly via the medial tentorial edge. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been treated initially with chemoradiation and subsequently with stereotactic radiosurgery for residual tumor. One year later, she presented with an intracranial recurrence of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cerebellopontine angle; the recurrence mimicked a benign tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was ultimately diagnosed as an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal origin. She was treated with palliative chemotherapy.

Nasopharyngeal yolk sac tumors: A rare pediatric occurrence

August 21, 2013     Belinda Mantle, MD and Ryan F. Osborne, MD, FACS
article

Symptoms of yolk sac tumors depend on the site affected. The characteristic finding is rapid growth over a few weeks.

Management of pterygoid venous plexus hemorrhage during resection of a large juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: A review of 27 cases

April 17, 2013     Lin Chang, MD; Yi Zixiang, MD; Fang Zheming, MD; Lin Gongbiao, MD; Li Zhichun, MD; Zhang Rong, MD; Zhou Aidong, MD; Lan Shuzhan, MD
article

Abstract

We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 27 patients who experienced intraoperative bleeding during resection of a large (Fisch type III or IV) juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Of this group, 16 patients had a type III JNA and 11 had a type IV tumor. The degree of hemorrhaging during excision of these JNAs varied greatly among individual patients. The amount of blood lost ranged from 200 to 5,000 ml (mean: 1,800) in the type III cases and from 700 to 8,000 ml (mean: 2,850) in the type IV cases. In 5 of these cases, both intraoperative observations and imaging data suggested that an important factor in the blood loss was damage to the pterygoid venous plexus (PVP). The PVP communicates with the cavernous sinus, ophthalmic vein, maxillary vein, and facial vein; no valve exists between these veins. In patients with a large JNA, the PVP is usually compressed by or adherent to the tumor. When a PVP is seriously damaged during removal of a JNA, hemorrhaging can be very profuse. Therefore, a suitable surgical approach and appropriate hemostatic procedures should be used to prevent or manage PVP hemorrhage as effectively as possible. We also describe in greater detail 5 typical cases of JNA excision that did (n = 3) and did not (n = 2) involve PVP damage.

Hearing loss secondary to a nasopharyngeal retention cyst

October 31, 2012     Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Michael Ellis, MD; Harold Neitzschman, MD, FACR
article

Resection is generally not indicated for small, asymptomatic pharyngeal cysts. Symptomatic cysts, on the other hand, can be treated with aspiration or a complete transoral resection, particularly if the lesion is large.

Endoscopic Coblation for the treatment of advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

October 4, 2012     Brandon Pierson, MD; Rosser Powitzky, MD; G. Paul Digoy, MD, FAAP
article

Abstract

We present 2 cases of advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) to illustrate the advantages of endoscopic Coblation-assisted resection of intranasal extensions of these masses. Both patients—an 11-year-old boy and a 14-year-old boy—presented with a large, extensive mass (Radkowski stage IIIb and Fisch stage IVb in both cases). After embolization was performed on each patient, his JNA was partially ablated via an endoscopic approach with the Coblator II Surgery System with an EVac Xtra Plasma Wand in conjunction with an image-guided navigation system. Both patients experienced resolution of their nasal obstruction with removal of the intranasal extension of the tumor. Coblation allowed for a controlled debulking of the tumors with less blood loss and without the need for multiple instruments. To the best of our knowledge, our report is one of the first to describe image-guided endoscopic Coblation of advanced JNA tumors. Future studies in adequately sized populations are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of Coblation-assisted endoscopic removal of both advanced and lower-stage JNAs.

Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma of the parapharyngeal space

September 7, 2012     Aayesha M. Khan, MD; Paula J. Chor, MD; John F. Eisenbeis, MD
article

Abstract

Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma (ER) is a rare, slowly growing, benign tumor of skeletal-muscle origin that has a strong predilection for the head and neck. Complete surgical resection has been proposed as the treatment of choice. We describe a case of adult ER that manifested as a nasopharyngeal mass. The diagnosis was made by transnasal endoscopic biopsy, and the patient was managed conservatively. We discuss the current knowledge regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of adult ER of the parapharyngeal space, and we propose a new concept for treating this tumor nonsurgically in appropriately selected patients.

Unusual nasopharyngeal foreign body: A hooked iron rod

July 5, 2012     Evelyne S. Diom, MBChB; Raymond Diouf, MBChB; El Hadji Malick Diop, MBChB
article

Abstract

Foreign bodies lodged in the nasopharynx are rare. We report a case of an unusual foreign body in the nasopharynx: a hooked iron rod. The patient was a 5-year-old girl. The foreign body had to be removed under general anesthesia. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar published report of a hooked iron rod in the nasopharynx.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the nasopharynx

April 30, 2012     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
article

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accounts for more than 50% of all Waldeyer ring lymphomas, which in turn account for about 15% of all head and neck lymphomas and about 50% of all extranodal head and neck lymphomas.

Nasopharyngeal dendritic cell sarcoma, not otherwise specified, in a 34-year-old man

June 13, 2011     William B. Horton, BS, David A. Joyner, MD, William P. Daley, MD, Karen T. Pitman, MD, and Majid A. Khan, MD
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Abstract

Dendritic cell sarcoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), is an entity that is poorly defined because of its rarity and poorly understood pathogenesis. It is characterized by positive immunohistochemical staining for S-100 and CD1a, along with an absence of cytoplasmic Birbeck granules on electron microscopy. We report the case of a surgically inaccessible nasopharyngeal dendritic cell sarcoma, NOS, in a 34-year-old man. Treatment with chemotherapy along with adjuvant radiation therapy was successful in decreasing the size of the nasopharyngeal mass, and the patient remained free of any evidence of recurrence nearly 5 years after treatment.

AIDS-related primary Kaposi sarcoma of the nasopharynx

June 13, 2011     Fatih Çelenk, MD, Metin Yilmaz, MD, Korhan Asal, MD, Özgür Ekinci, MD, and Nil Tokgöz, MD
article

Abstract

Primary nasopharyngeal Kaposi sarcoma is extremely rare, as only 1 case has been previously reported in the literature. We report a new case, which occurred in a 37-year-old man with a known history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The patient presented with complaints of recurrent epistaxis and postnasal hemorrhage. Endoscopic examination detected a bluish, smooth, firm, nonpulsatile mass in the nasopharyngeal wall. Histopathologic findings on biopsy were consistent with Kaposi sarcoma. The tumor was successfully treated with radiotherapy. Kaposi sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any AIDS patient who presents with recurrent unilateral nasal bleeding.

Cysts of the fossa of Rosenmüller: Report of two cases

July 31, 2010     Simon K.W. Lloyd, BSc(Hons), MPhil, FRCS(ORL-HNS), Riccardo A. Di Cuffa, DOHNS, MRCS, MRCGP, Felicity K. Seymour, MA, DOHNS, FRCS(ORL-HNS), Lloyd E. Savy, BSc(Hons), FRCR, and Henry R. Grant, FRCS
article

Abstract

Cystic lesions of the nasopharynx are rare. Two cases of mucous retention cysts originating from the fossa of Rosenmüller are described, together with their characteristic radiologic appearance, which allows differentiation from other types of lesions in this region. The differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.

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