Nasopharynx

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma staging: An overview

June 4, 2015     Nada Ali Alshaikh, MD; Anna Eleftheriadou, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Staging of tumors is very important in treatment and surgical decision making, as well as in predicting disease recurrence and prognosis. This review focuses on the different available classifications of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and their impact on the evaluation, management, and prognosis of JNA. The literature was reviewed, and publications on JNA staging were examined. Our MEDLINE search of the entire English-language literature found no review article on the current available staging systems for JNA. In this article, we review the common JNA classification systems that have been published, and we discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used staging systems for JNA are the Radkowski and the Andrews-Fisch staging systems. However, some newer staging systems that are based on advances in technology and surgical approaches-the Onerci, INCan, and UPMC systems-have shown promising utility, and they will probably gain popularity in the future.

Endoscopic view of nasopharyngeal scarring

January 19, 2015     Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
article

A finding of fibrous or scar tissue in the nasopharynx usually indicates previous trauma or surgery in the area. The most common iatrogenic cause is adenoidectomy.

Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasopharynx with parapharyngeal extension: Case report and brief review of the literature

December 19, 2014     Sanjeev Kumar, MS, MRCS, DOHNS; Asad Qayyum, FRCS, AFRCS, DLO; Nazir Bhat, MS, FRCS(ORL-HNS)
article

We report a rare case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the right lateral nasopharynx with extension into the right parapharyngeal space in a 39-year-old man. Since this is a self-limiting condition, the patient began to improve spontaneously over the next few weeks, and he experienced a complete recovery. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is an uncommon condition that is known to involve the palate; nasopharyngeal involvement is very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, extension into the parapharyngeal area has not been previously reported in the English-language literature. This condition poses a diagnostic dilemma because it closely mimics a malignancy, and failure to recognize it can result in unnecessary investigations and extensive surgery. We also review the literature on necrotizing sialometaplasia of the oropharyngeal area.

Pedunculated cavernous hemangioma originating in the olfactory cleft

September 17, 2014     Kaiming Su, MD, PhD; Weitian Zhang, MD, PhD; Haibo Shi, MD, PhD; Shankai Yin, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature.

Meningeal carcinomatosis in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A case report

July 13, 2014     Daniel M. Cushman, MD; German Giese, MD; Panta Rouhani, MD, PhD, MPH
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Abstract

Meningeal carcinomatosis is the tumoral invasion of the leptomeninges. It is caused by the spread of malignant cells throughout the subarachnoid space, which produces signs and symptoms due to multifocal involvement. Cranial nerve symptoms are the most common focal findings. The diagnosis is usually made by imaging and/or cytology. Head and neck cancers are the cause of approximately 2% of all cases of meningeal carcinomatosis; in very rare cases, they are caused by a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We report a case of meningeal carcinomatosis that was caused by a recurrence of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The patient, a 60-year-old woman, experienced no focal neurologic symptoms and exhibited no radiologic evidence of meningeal involvement. We also review the literature on meningeal carcinomatosis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using IgA anti-EBNA1 + VCA-p18 serology assay

March 18, 2014     Achmad C. Romdhoni, MD, PhD; Nurul Wiqoyah, MS; Widodo Ario Kentjono, MD, PhD
article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common head and neck malignancy in Indonesia. Overall, it ranks fourth in males and sixth in females as the most prevalent type of cancer in that country. The data show that in the year 2011, NPC incidence was considered to be intermediate (6.2/100,000 population per year). Through histopathologic examination, about 70 to 80% of these cases were found to be type III according to the WHO classificaton. NPC carries an excellent prognosis if treated early, but most patients presented with stage III to IV disease, which negatively affected the cure rate and increased the mortality rate. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgA serology has been established as an effective marker for NPC. Therefore, biologic markers, DNA, and/or antibody-based diagnosis is needed to decrease NPC cases. A screening program needs to be developed that will identify people at high risk of NPC and those who are in the early stage of the disease. In this study, 20 samples were collected from posttherapy patients. An otolaryngologic examination, histopathology of nasopharyngeal tissue, and blood testing for serologic markers were performed. IgA anti-EBNA1 + VCA-p18 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed positive impact as a tool for confirming the diagnosis of NPC, but it still has to be combined with other specific diagnostic tools for post-therapy monitoring and for determining prognosis.

Recurrence of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma manifesting as a cerebellopontine angle mass

December 20, 2013     Min Han Kong, MS; Jahendran Jeevanan, MS; Thanabalan Jegan, MS
article

Abstract

As many as 31% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with intracranial extension. Despite this high percentage, extension to the cerebellopontine angle is rare. The mechanism of tumor spread to the cerebellopontine angle is not completely understood. The most likely mechanism is direct extension to the skull base with involvement of the petrous apex and further extension posteriorly via the medial tentorial edge. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been treated initially with chemoradiation and subsequently with stereotactic radiosurgery for residual tumor. One year later, she presented with an intracranial recurrence of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cerebellopontine angle; the recurrence mimicked a benign tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was ultimately diagnosed as an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal origin. She was treated with palliative chemotherapy.

Nasopharyngeal yolk sac tumors: A rare pediatric occurrence

August 21, 2013     Belinda Mantle, MD and Ryan F. Osborne, MD, FACS
article

Symptoms of yolk sac tumors depend on the site affected. The characteristic finding is rapid growth over a few weeks.

Management of pterygoid venous plexus hemorrhage during resection of a large juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: A review of 27 cases

April 17, 2013     Lin Chang, MD; Yi Zixiang, MD; Fang Zheming, MD; Lin Gongbiao, MD; Li Zhichun, MD; Zhang Rong, MD; Zhou Aidong, MD; Lan Shuzhan, MD
article

Abstract

We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 27 patients who experienced intraoperative bleeding during resection of a large (Fisch type III or IV) juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Of this group, 16 patients had a type III JNA and 11 had a type IV tumor. The degree of hemorrhaging during excision of these JNAs varied greatly among individual patients. The amount of blood lost ranged from 200 to 5,000 ml (mean: 1,800) in the type III cases and from 700 to 8,000 ml (mean: 2,850) in the type IV cases. In 5 of these cases, both intraoperative observations and imaging data suggested that an important factor in the blood loss was damage to the pterygoid venous plexus (PVP). The PVP communicates with the cavernous sinus, ophthalmic vein, maxillary vein, and facial vein; no valve exists between these veins. In patients with a large JNA, the PVP is usually compressed by or adherent to the tumor. When a PVP is seriously damaged during removal of a JNA, hemorrhaging can be very profuse. Therefore, a suitable surgical approach and appropriate hemostatic procedures should be used to prevent or manage PVP hemorrhage as effectively as possible. We also describe in greater detail 5 typical cases of JNA excision that did (n = 3) and did not (n = 2) involve PVP damage.

Hearing loss secondary to a nasopharyngeal retention cyst

October 31, 2012     Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Michael Ellis, MD; Harold Neitzschman, MD, FACR
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Resection is generally not indicated for small, asymptomatic pharyngeal cysts. Symptomatic cysts, on the other hand, can be treated with aspiration or a complete transoral resection, particularly if the lesion is large.

Endoscopic Coblation for the treatment of advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

October 4, 2012     Brandon Pierson, MD; Rosser Powitzky, MD; G. Paul Digoy, MD, FAAP
article

Abstract

We present 2 cases of advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) to illustrate the advantages of endoscopic Coblation-assisted resection of intranasal extensions of these masses. Both patients—an 11-year-old boy and a 14-year-old boy—presented with a large, extensive mass (Radkowski stage IIIb and Fisch stage IVb in both cases). After embolization was performed on each patient, his JNA was partially ablated via an endoscopic approach with the Coblator II Surgery System with an EVac Xtra Plasma Wand in conjunction with an image-guided navigation system. Both patients experienced resolution of their nasal obstruction with removal of the intranasal extension of the tumor. Coblation allowed for a controlled debulking of the tumors with less blood loss and without the need for multiple instruments. To the best of our knowledge, our report is one of the first to describe image-guided endoscopic Coblation of advanced JNA tumors. Future studies in adequately sized populations are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of Coblation-assisted endoscopic removal of both advanced and lower-stage JNAs.

Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma of the parapharyngeal space

September 7, 2012     Aayesha M. Khan, MD; Paula J. Chor, MD; John F. Eisenbeis, MD
article

Abstract

Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma (ER) is a rare, slowly growing, benign tumor of skeletal-muscle origin that has a strong predilection for the head and neck. Complete surgical resection has been proposed as the treatment of choice. We describe a case of adult ER that manifested as a nasopharyngeal mass. The diagnosis was made by transnasal endoscopic biopsy, and the patient was managed conservatively. We discuss the current knowledge regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of adult ER of the parapharyngeal space, and we propose a new concept for treating this tumor nonsurgically in appropriately selected patients.

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