Maxillary sinus

Aggressive inflammatory pseudotumor of the maxillary sinus and orbit

March 18, 2014     Sheldon Chong, MBBS, MS(ORL-HNS); Carren S.L. Teh, MBBS, MS(ORL-HNS); Shashinder Singh, MBBS, FRACS; Mun Kein Seong, MBBS, MPath; Subrayan Viswaraja, MBBS, FRCS(Edin), FRCOphth(UK)
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Abstract

Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare, locally aggressive, benign neoplasm of unknown etiology. It is uncommon in the head and neck region, particularly in the paranasal sinuses. We present an unusual case of IPT of the maxillary sinus and orbit in a 27-year-old woman who presented with cheek swelling, right orbital swelling, double vision, and associated fever and trismus. Computed tomography identified a mass with radiologic features suggestive of a malignancy of the maxillary sinus and orbit; the mass extended into the infratemporal fossa, parapharyngeal space, anterior antral wall, and surrounding soft tissue. A diagnosis of IPT was established on the basis of histologic and immunohistochemical analysis, which identified a proliferation of bland spindle cells and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate. Despite its aggressive appearance, IPT is associated with a good prognosis. Our patient was treated successfully with a combination of surgery, steroid therapy, and methotrexate. Chemotherapeutic agents are generally reserved for recalcitrant cases.

Unusual presentations of choanal polyps: Report of 3 cases

February 12, 2014     Ali Ozdek, MD; Halil Erdem Ozel, MD
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Abstract

Most choanal polyps arise from the maxillary sinus, and they are called antrochoanal polyps. Their typical endoscopic and radiologic appearance makes them easy to diagnose. However, some choanal polyps originate in unusual sites in the paranasal sinuses and nose, such as the sphenoid sinus and the lateral wall of the nose. These polyps usually present unilaterally, although bilateral presentations are possible. We describe 3 cases of atypical choanal polyps: a sphenochoanal polyp, bilateral antrochoanal polyps, and a giant antrochoanal polyp. In each case, nasal endoscopy and computed tomography clinched the diagnosis, and endoscopic surgery was performed to successfully remove the polyp. We discuss the clinical characteristics of these 3 cases.

Organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus: A clinicopathologic study of 5 cases

February 12, 2014     Hidenori Yokoi, MD, PhD; Atsushi Arakawa, MD, PhD; Fumihiko Matsumoto, MD, PhD; Naoko Yokoi, MD, PhD; Katsuhisa Ikeda, MD, PhD; and Naoyuki Kohno, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus is rare. Its pathogenesis is still not clear, and it appears to have multiple causes. We report the clinical, clinicopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in 5 patients-3 men and 2 women, aged 19 to 68 years (mean: 40.2)-with pathologically proven organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. In all 5 cases, we were able to successfully perform curative treatment via endoscopic sinus surgery. Our findings suggest that most organized hematomas are angiomatous. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the presence of proliferative activity.

Clinical management of a patient with advanced mucosal malignant melanoma in the sinonasal area

January 21, 2014     Marco Fusetti, MD; Alberto Eibenstein, MD; Ettore Lupi, MD; Enzo Iacomino, MD; Tiziana Pieramici, MD; Alessandra Fioretti, MD, PhD
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Abstract

We describe a case of mucosal malignant melanoma in the sinonasal area of a 65-year-old woman. She presented with a history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis with subsequent tenderness, facial anesthesia involving cranial nerve V2, red eye, proptosis, diplopia, and conjunctival chemosis. Computed tomography detected a nonspecific solid mass that had involved the left maxillary sinus and surrounding tissues, with extension into the nasal cavity and invasion of the orbital floor and eye muscles. Histopathologic examination of the neoplasm revealed that it was a malignant melanoma. We performed a radical hemimaxillectomy that extended to the orbit, which allowed for radical excision of the tumor. Postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Mucosal melanoma in the head and neck is a rare and highly malignant neoplasm. We suggest that malignant melanoma be suspected when a small-round-cell tumor is found on light microscopy, and we confirm the usefulness of immunohistochemical investigations.

Endoscopic view of ostial polyps of the maxillary sinus

June 11, 2013     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; and Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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Ostial polys in the maxillary sinus can cause recurring maxillary sinus disease by obstructing the ethmoid infundibulum and natural ostium of the maxillary sinus.

Relief from cluster headaches following extraction of an ipsilateral infected tooth

June 11, 2013     Matthew R. Hoffman, PhD; and Timothy M. McCulloch, MD
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Abstract

A 60-year-old man with a 7-year history of cluster headaches was seen by an oral surgeon for evaluation of pain in the left upper second molar ipsilateral to the side affected by the headaches. During extraction of the tooth, infection, decay, and inflammation were discovered. Since the extraction in November 2008, the patient has experienced one episode of cluster headaches as of April 2013.

Bilateral silent sinus syndrome

December 31, 2012     Jeffrey D. Suh, MD; Vijay Ramakrishnan, MD; Jennifer Y. Lee, MD; Alexander G. Chiu, MD
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Abstract

Silent sinus syndrome is a rare clinical entity associated with progressive enophthalmos, collapse of the maxillary sinus, and hypoglobus. We report a case of bilateral silent sinus syndrome in a 29-year-old man. Representative radiographic and intraoperative images are presented. The purpose of this article is to illustrate a new presentation of the disease and to review the current diagnostic and treatment modalities.

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the maxillary sinus: A case report

December 31, 2012     Suja Sreedharan, MS; Kishore Chandra Prasad, MS, FACS; Mahesh Chandra Hegde, MS; Kausalya Sahoo, MS; and Arathi Alva, MS
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Abstract

A 52-year-old woman presented to the ENT clinic with a huge swelling on the right side of her face that had originated 6 years earlier. The mass was ultimately diagnosed as a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the maxillary sinus. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma itself is uncommon, and its origin in the maxillary sinus is very rare. We discuss the presentation, histopathologic picture, and management of this case.

Chromobacterium violaceum necrotizing fasciitis: A case report and review of the literature

October 31, 2012     Jonathan K. Seigel, MD; Michael E. Stadler, MD; Jennifer L. Lombrano, DDS; Jeffrey S. Almony, MD, DDS; Marion E. Couch, MD, PhD; and Thomas H. Belhorn, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe, rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue that causes significant destruction. It is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Chromobacterium violaceum necrotizing fasciitis and subsequently found to have autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease.

Endoscopic view of bilateral maxillary sinus cysts removed with a powered instrument

September 7, 2012     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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Powered instrumentation is a good choice for the removal of maxillary sinus lesions. It is efficient and safe and preserves normal sinus mucosa.

Endoscopic view of secretion transport in the maxillary sinus following a long-term inferior meatal antrostomy

August 10, 2012     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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It is important to remove any obstruction of the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus or the ethmoid infundibulum because maxillary sinus secretions will be transported toward the natural ostium even when a previously placed large and patent inferior meatal antrostomy is present.

Spectrum of paranasal sinus mycoses in coastal India

June 4, 2012     Jyoti R. Kini, MD; Spoorthy S. Shetty, MBBS; Hema Kini, MD
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Abstract

Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses are uncommon, and the disease they cause can be identified from their histopathologic appearance. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of fungal infection and histopathologic changes in specimens sent for evaluation of chronic sinusitis and correlate with culture findings wherever possible. The records of 200 consecutive cases coded as paranasal sinuses over a period of 3 years were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Twenty nine out of a total of 200 specimens (14.5%) were positive for fungal elements on histopathologic examination. The most common etiologic agents in our study were Aspergillus spp (37.9%); only 1 culture (3.4%) was positive for a Candida species. Eight of 29 patients with fungal sinusitis (27.6%) had diabetes, and 1 patient was being treated for rheumatoid arthritis. Eight of the 29 patients had allergic fungal sinusitis, 8 had chronic granulomatous sinusitis, and 1 had acute fulminant invasive sinusitis. Fungi have been increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in chronic sinusitis. It is imperative for patient management not only that paranasal sinus mycoses be diagnosed but also that the specific histologic category be identified.

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