Middle Ear

Recurrent post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea secondary to aerobic endospore-forming bacilli: A case report and brief literature review

February 25, 2013     James J. Jaber, MD, PhD; Matthew L. Kircher, MD; Eric Thorpe, MD; Ryan G. Porter Sr., MD; John P. Leonetti, MD; Sam J. Marzo, MD
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Abstract

We report a unique case in which a 57-year-old man with an 8-year history of late recurrent post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) was found to harbor Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic endospore-forming bacillus that is typically resistant to chemical and physical agents because of its unique life cycle. Removal of the patient's tympanostomy tube resulted in complete resolution of his long-standing otorrhea. We also review the etiologies of and treatment strategies for early, late, chronic, and recurrent PTTO. We conclude that regardless of the etiology, a patient with persistent or recurrent PTTO should consider undergoing removal of the ventilation tube.

Absent stapedial reflex: Otosclerosis or middle ear tumor?

February 25, 2013     Deb Biswas, FRCS-ORL, MS-ORL, MRCS, DOHNS; Ranjit K. Mal, FRCS
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Abstract

We present an unusual case in which a patient diagnosed as having otosclerosis on the basis of clinical and audiologic findings actually had a middle ear facial nerve schwannoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in English literature in which a facial nerve schwannoma presented with conductive deafness of gradual onset and absent stapedial reflex with a normally functioning facial nerve. We also include a review of the literature.

Complicated coexisting pyogenic and tuberculous otitis media affecting the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas: Report of a rare entity

January 24, 2013     Tripti Brar, MBBS, MS, DNB; Sumit Mrig, MBBS, MS, DNB; J.C. Passey, MS; A.K. Agarwal, MS; Shayma Jain, MD
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Abstract

We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fast bacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery.

Nontuberculous mycobacterial otomastoiditis: A case report

January 24, 2013     Li-Tai Tsai, MD; Ching-Yuan Wang, MD; Chia-Der Lin, MD; Ming-Hsui Tsai, MD
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Abstract

Nontuberculous mycobacterial otomastoiditis is rare and can be easily confused with various different forms of otitis media. We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with left-sided chronic otitis media that had persisted for more than 1 year. It was not eradicated by standard antimicrobial therapy and surgical debridement. After appropriate antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacteria was added to the therapeutic regimen, the patient improved significantly and the lesion had healed by 6 months. Based on our experience with this case, we conclude that early bacterial culture and staining for acid-fast bacilli in ear drainage material or granulation tissue should be performed when standard antimicrobial therapy fails to eradicate chronic otitis media of an undetermined origin that is accompanied by granulation tissue over the external auditory canal or middle ear. Polymerase chain reaction testing is also effective for rapid diagnosis. Surgical debridement and removal of the foreign body can successfully treat nontuberculous mycobacterial otomastoiditis only when effective antimicrobial therapy is also administered.

Tympanomastoidectomy with otoendoscopy

December 31, 2012     Ryan M. Rehl, MD; Sepehr Oliaei, MD; Kasra Ziai, MD; Hossein Mahboubi, MD, MPH; Hamid R. Djalilian, MD
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Abstract

A cadaveric study was performed to test the hypothesis that intact-canal-wall mastoidectomy (ICWM) with otoendoscopy allows for equal or better visualization of the middle ear cavity structures when compared with canal-wall-down mastoidectomy (CWDM) with microscopy. Ten temporal bones were prepared with a reversible canal-wall-down tympanomastoidectomy technique. Five anatomic sites in each middle ear cavity (lateral epitympanum, posterior crus of the stapes, the sinus tympani, eustachian tube orifice, and round window niche) were marked with paint. Two otolaryngologists blinded to the purpose of the study viewed the temporal bones with the microscope. Following replacement of the posterior canal walls, the bones were then viewed with a 30° and a 70° otoendoscope. All visualized paint marks for each viewing were recorded and compared. We found that ICWM with 30° or 70° otoendoscopy provided significantly better visualization of the sinus tympani than did CWDM (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant difference among the three methods in visualization of the lateral epitympanum, posterior crus of the stapes, and round window niche. With respect to the eustachian tube orifice, one of the observers reported significantly better visualization with CWDM (p = 0.036). With adjunctive otoendoscopy, it is not necessary to remove the posterior canal wall to adequately visualize or remove disease from various areas of the middle ear cleft. The use of otoendoscopy during cholesteatoma surgery may allow for more frequent preservation of the posterior canal wall and reduced rates of residual cholesteatoma, given the equal or better visualization of the middle ear cavity.

Otic polyp

October 31, 2012     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
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An uncommon entity, otic polyp arises in response to a long-standing inflammatory or infectious process of the middle ear, most often in young boys.

Middle ear atelectasis

October 31, 2012     Min-Tsan Shu, MD; Kang-Chao Wu, MD; Yu-Chun Chen, MD
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Tympanic membrane retraction caused by long-term eustachian tube dysfunction may lead to erosion of the ossicles and cholesteatoma.

Cholesterol granuloma

October 8, 2012     Joseph A. Ursick, MD; Derald E. Brackmann, MD
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 Cholesterol granulomas can cause bony expansion and typically become symptomatic when they encroach upon adjacent cranial nerves.

Complications of chronic suppurative otitis media: A left otogenic brain abscess and a right mastoid fistula

October 4, 2012     Yok Kuan Chew, MS; Jack Pein Cheong, MBBS; Abdullah Khir, MS; Sushil Brito-Mutunayagam, MS; Narayanan Prepageran, FRCS
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Abstract

Otogenic brain abscess and postauricular fistula are complications of chronic suppurative otitis media. We describe a rare case of bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media that caused a left temporal lobe abscess and a right mastoid fistula.

Interhemispheric subdural abscess: A rare complication of atticoantral ear disease

August 10, 2012     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO
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Abstract

A 14-year-old girl who had been experiencing ear discharge for the previous 3 years was referred to a tertiary care center for management of a 3-day history of severe headache and vomiting. Otolaryngologic examination revealed the presence of an atticoantral type of ear disease on the left side. Computed tomography detected an interhemispheric subdural abscess that had originated on the left side. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics, and she later underwent a mastoidectomy to clear the ear disease. She recovered without complications. Subdural empyema is the rarest complication of otitis media, and it is very rarely seen in an interhemispheric setting.

Topical mitomycin C application before myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion: Does it affect the final outcome?

August 10, 2012     Ahmed Hesham, MD; Ayman Hussien, MD; Ahmed Hussein, MD
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Abstract

Previous animal studies have shown that the topical application of mitomycin C is safe and effective in prolonging the patency of myringotomy openings in ears that have not received a ventilation tube. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in humans to determine if this treatment would make a difference in outcomes when a ventilation tube is inserted. To that end, we prospectively studied a group of patients with resistant otitis media with effusion who underwent bilateral myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion. Our original study population was made up of 55 children aged 2 to 12 years; 15 of these patients were lost to follow-up, leaving us with 40 patients and 80 ears. Each patient served as his or her own control, as mitomycin C was applied to the tympanic membrane on one side just prior to myringotomy creation and normal saline was applied to the other side. Our main outcomes measures were the duration of tube placement (i.e., the length of time before extrusion of the tube) and the incidence of other early and late postoperative complications. We found no statistically significant difference between the mitomycin C-treated ears and the control ears in any of these parameters. We conclude that the use of mitomycin C prior to myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion is not worthwhile.

Recurrent pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the middle ear: A form of granulocytic sarcoma

July 5, 2012     David Manning, MD; Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Harold Neitzschman, MD, FACR
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Leukemia of the middle ear easily can be misidentified as acute otitis media or Bell palsy. It occurs most often in children 2 to 5 years of age and in the elderly population.

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