Cochlea

Cochlear fistula in a noncholesteatomatous ear

September 17, 2014     Yoav Hahn, MD; Dennis I. Bojrab, MD
article

Abstract

Bony destruction of the labyrinth is usually associated with long-standing cholesteatomatous otitis media. The promontory is not a common site for bone resorption because (1) it is not an area that is involved in accumulation of cholesteatoma perimatrix substances, (2) it is the densest bone of the human body, and (3) pressure necrosis from overlying tissue is uncommon. We report a case of cochlear erosion associated with noncholesteatomatous middle ear disease. As far as we know, this is only the second such case reported in the literature. We also review decision-making factors and techniques for the safe management of this condition.

Implants in otology

March 18, 2014     Barry E. Hirsch, MD
article

Progress in technology facilitates progress in patient care.

Immunization guidelines for cochlear implant recipients

October 23, 2013     Barry E. Hirsch, MD
article

Patients who have a cochlear implant are considered to be at a higher risk of developing meningitis following otitis media. Whether this occurs along the electrode going from the middle ear into the cochlea or through a blood-borne pathway is unclear.

Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumolabyrinth plus pneumocephalus as complications of middle ear implant and cochlear implant surgery

July 21, 2013     Brian J. McKinnon, MD, MBA; Tamara Watts, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective case review at a tertiary academic medical center for the complications of pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus and subcutaneous emphysema after surgery for middle ear and cochlear implants. Charts of 76 cochlear implant and 2 middle ear implant patients from January 2001 through June 2009 were reviewed. We identified 1 cochlear implant recipient with pneumolabyrinth and pneumocephalus, and 1 middle ear implant recipient with subcutaneous emphysema. Surgical exploration was performed for the pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus; the subcutaneous emphysema was managed conservatively. The patient with the cochlear implant, who had had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed, experienced pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus 6 years after uneventful surgery. Middle ear exploration revealed no residual fibrous tissue seal at the cochleostomy. The middle ear and cochleostomy were obliterated with muscle, fat, and fibrin glue. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt was deactivated, with clinical and radiographic resolution. On postoperative day 5, the patient who had undergone the middle ear implant reported crepitance over the mastoid and implant device site after repeated Valsalva maneuvers. Computed tomography showed air surrounding the internal processor. A mastoid pressure dressing was applied and the subcutaneous emphysema resolved. These 2 cases support the importance of recognizing the clinical presentation of pneumolabyrinth with associated pneumocephalus, as well as subcutaneous emphysema. Securing the internal processor, adequately sealing the cochleostomy, and providing preoperative counseling regarding Valsalva maneuvers and the potential risk of cochlear implantation in the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt may prevent adverse sequelae.

A purely intracanalicular cochlear schwannoma presenting with progressive hearing loss

October 26, 2011     Hüseyin Işıldak, MD, Metin Ibrahimov, MD, Mehmet Yilmaz, MD, Ozgun Enver, MD, and Sait Albayram, MD
article

Abstract

Schwannomas arising from the cochlear nerve and confined to the internal auditory canal are rare. Clinically, a cochlear schwannoma can cause a progressive hearing loss. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with a cochlear schwannoma that manifested as a slowly progressive hearing loss. The lesion was diagnosed by gadolinium-enhanced 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

Cochlear implant fixation using resorbable mesh

July 13, 2011     Larry Lundy, MD and Selmin Karatayli-Ozgursoy, MD
article

Abstract

In this article we describe a new method of cochlear implant receiver-stimulator fixation using a resorbable poly (D,L) lactic acid mesh. We conducted a retrospective case review at a tertiary referral center; 10 pediatric and 4 adult patients had undergone cochlear implantation during the period from February to October 2008. Resorbable poly (D,L) lactic acid mesh and pins were used for fixation of the cochlear implant receiver stimulator. The receiver stimulator was assessed for stability/migration, and the scalp flap/incision were evaluated for allergic reactions, infections, and healing problems. With an average follow-up of 17.2 months, no patients had migration of the receiver stimulator, and there was no evidence of infection, wound dehiscence, or allergic reaction. Early results indicate that fixation of a cochlear implant receiver stimulator using resorbable mesh is well tolerated and provides good stability without device migration. Resorbable mesh fixation of the receiver stimulator is a reasonable alternative technique for cochlear implantation.

Clinical significance of a hearing and imaging workup in a child with cochlear nerve aplasia and a normal internal auditory canal

December 1, 2009     Fernando Ribeiro, MD, Liciere Marotta, MD, and Claudia A. Eckley, MD
article

Abstract

Modern magnetic resonance imaging has significantly improved the diagnosis of cochlear nerve deficiencies. A careful assessment of all clinical, imaging, and auditory data is of utmost importance in such cases in order to properly establish the site of the abnormality. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with unilateral cochlear nerve aplasia, normal middle and inner ear anatomy, and an absence of otoacoustic emissions, all of which erroneously suggested cochlear damage. We also briefly review the embryogenesis of the inner ear and auditory pathway. A patient with similar findings in the setting of a bilateral hearing loss and insufficient imaging would be at risk of inappropriate cochlear implantation.

Post-stapedectomy cochlear otosclerosis

March 31, 2009     Fred Linthicum Jr., MD
article

Transmastoid labyrinthotomy approach for cochlear implantation in a common cavity malformation: A case report

May 31, 2008     Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy, MD
article

Abstract

The standard transmastoid facial recess approach has become the popular technique for cochlear implantation. Although this approach has been used for implantation in patients with common cavity malformations, in patients with this anomaly and severe abnormalities of the middle ear, this approach may be technically difficult and makes the facial nerve vulnerable to injury. Using a direct approach to the common cavity through the mastoid cavity, we have successfully performed cochlear implantation in 1 patient with a common cavity malformation. This transmastoid labyrinthotomy approach to the common cavity is an effective and simple technique for placing the electrode array. It minimizes the risk to the facial nerve and may decrease postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

Hearing loss and cerebrospinal fluid pressure: Case report and review of the literature

March 1, 2008     Matthew S. Pogodzinski, MD, Jon K. Shallop, PhD, Juraj Sprung, MD, PhD, Toby N. Weingarten, MD, Gilbert Y. Wong, MD, and Thomas J. McDonald, MD
article

Abstract

A decrease in cerebrospinal fluid pressure may result in an endolymphatic hydrops through a patent cochlear aqueduct or through the fundus of the internal auditory canal. This hydrops typically leads to low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. We describe the case of a man who presented with a subjective and objective hearing loss in addition to a headache 4 days after he had undergone a dural puncture. We treated him with a standard epidural blood patch. Immediately after treatment, his hearing improved and his headache resolved.

Glomus tympanicum

May 31, 2007     Joe Walter Kutz Jr., MD; William H. Slattery III, MD
article

Cochlear implantation in severe traumatic brain injury and paranoid schizophrenia: Two case studies

July 31, 2005     Jane T. Siegal, PsyD; William Robiner, PhD; Sharon Smith, MS; Samuel C. Levine, MD
article
Abstract
In view of the demanding instruction and training requirements associated with cochlear implantation, patients with cognitive impairments have typically been considered to be poor candidates for this procedure. This presumption persists in part because experience and research in this area are limited. We describe our experience with implanting cochlear devices in 2 patients who had significant psychological impairments; 1 patient had experienced a severe brain injury, and the other had paranoid schizophrenia. Nevertheless, both patients were able to follow the implant training program, and they experienced different degrees of improvement in their hearing. We discuss our preoperative evaluations of these patients and the key factors that led to our decision to proceed with surgery.
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