Pediatric Otolaryngology

Pediatric neck abscesses caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A retrospective study of incidence and susceptibilities over time

August 31, 2010     Parker A. Velargo, MD, Emily L. Burke, MD, and Evelyn A. Kluka, MD
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Abstract

Since the early 2000s, studies have shown that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the pediatric population has been increasing. Moreover, studies also have indicated a trend toward increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics over time. However, few studies have specifically focused on such trends in pediatric neck abscesses. We undertook a retrospective study of 109 patients to compare the incidence of pediatric neck abscesses caused by MRSA during two separate 5-year periods at Children's Hospital of New Orleans in an attempt to determine if the incidence was indeed increasing. We also analyzed differences in MRSA susceptibility to various antibiotics over the same two time periods-January 1997 through December 2001 (n = 22) and January 2002 through December 2006 (n = 87). We found a statistically significant increase in the incidence of MRSA between the first 5-year period and the second-from 25 to 70.3% (p = 0.0388). We did not find any significant difference in antibiotic susceptibility patterns between the two 5-year periods.

The presentation and management of fibromatosis colli

August 31, 2010     Kristen C. Lowry, BA, Judy A. Estroff, MD, and Reza Rahbar, DMD, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a systematic chart review to identify all infants with fibromatosis colli who had been seen at Children's Hospital in Boston from January 1999 through December 2004. We found 7 such cases, which involved 4 boys and 3 girls, aged 1 to 3.5 weeks at presentation. We compiled information on each patient's birth history, presenting signs and symptoms, significant medical history, imaging findings, management, follow-up, and outcome. Six of the 7 patients presented with a neck mass, and the remaining patient presented with neck “fullness.” Five patients developed torticollis at some point. All patients were treated conservatively with physiotherapy. Five patients experienced a complete resolution of signs and symptoms, and the other 2 experienced improvement. Based on our findings, we recommend that early management of fibromatosis colli include observation and physiotherapy to prevent or reverse torticollis and the craniofacial asymmetry that can result. Similarly attractive is the opportunity that physiotherapy provides for parents to involve themselves in the care of their newborn. It is important, therefore, to quickly identify fibromatosis colli as such in order to avoid unnecessary expenditures of resources and to promptly begin conservative treatment.

Delayed facial paresis following tympanomastoid surgery in a pediatric patient

July 31, 2010     Marc C. Thorne, MD, Brian P. Dunham, MD, and Lawrence W.C. Tom, MD
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Abstract

Despite the presence of normal facial nerve function in the immediate postoperative period, patients may develop facial nerve dysfunction anywhere from several hours to several days after otologic surgery. This delayed facial paresis, following a broad range of otologic surgeries, has been well described in adults but not in pediatric patients. Viral reactivation is increasingly implicated as the underlying etiology of delayed facial paresis. We present a case of delayed facial paresis in a pediatric patient with a clinical course consistent with viral reactivation.

Congenital epulis

June 30, 2010     Arnaud Bewley, MD, Jason D. Bloom, MD, Safeena Kherani, MD, and Bruce R. Pawel, MD

Anatomic changes related to laryngeal descent from birth to 1 year of age: Do they play a role in SIDS?

June 30, 2010     Robert E. Stephens, PhD, Austin Bancroft, DO, Alan G. Glaros, PhD, and Lisa H. Lowe, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to measure laryngeal descent in human infants and to determine if there is any correlation between the associated anatomic changes and the timing of the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is 2 to 4 months of age. We performed a computerized search of hospital records at our institution to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head and neck and plain radiographs of the lateral neck in patients younger than 1 year of age (range: 1 to 357 days). After unusable images were excluded, 79 head and neck MRI scans and 111 lateral neck x-rays were suitable for study. Two measurements were taken from each image: one from the tip of the epiglottis to the uvula and one from the tip of the epiglottis to the center of the sella turcica. These measurements were then graphed against the subject's age. SPSS statistical software was used to determine growth curves of the various measurements. The first derivative of these curves was calculated to determine the rate of laryngeal descent at a given age. We found that most subjects did not have an overlapping epiglottis and uvula during the first few months of life. The rate of laryngeal descent, based on measurements of the distance between the epiglottis and uvula, gradually increased in a near-linear fashion from as low as 0.005726 mm/day at day 1 of life to as high as 0.028366 mm/day at 300 days of age. We found no sharp increase in the rate of descent at 2 to 4 months of age, and thus no support for our hypothesis that there might be a correlation between anatomic changes and the peak incidence of SIDS.

Stahl ear deformity associated with Finlay-Marks syndrome

May 31, 2010     Young S. Paik, MD and C.W. David Chang, MD

Endoscopic view of an ethmoid mucocele in a pediatric patient

May 31, 2010     Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS, MBA, Dewey A. Christmas, MD, and Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

Pediatric tracheotomy in special populations: Comparison of operative times and survival

May 31, 2010     Catherine A. Craig, MD, Ashley Brooke Robey, MD, and Debora W. Goebel, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to analyze various aspects of tracheotomy in children with abnormal laryngotracheal anatomy, a congenital cardiac anomaly, both, or neither. Our study population consisted of 53 children who had undergone tracheotomy performed by a single otolaryngologist; 12 patients had abnormal laryngotracheal anatomy and 9 had a cardiac anomaly. Mean operative times were significantly longer in both of these groups than they were in children with normal anatomy (69 vs. 50 min; p < 0.0001) and in children with no cardiac anomaly (65 vs. 53 min; p < 0.05). Post-tracheotomy survival at 1 and 2 years for children with a cardiac anomaly was significantly worse than survival for those without (44 vs. 91%; p < 0.001). Likewise, children who had been intubated for 10 days or more had significantly worse survival than did those who were intubated for less than 10 days (55 vs. 95%; p < 0.001). Finally, we found that the patients with prolonged intubation, respiratory failure, and a cardiac surgical history had higher mortality rates associated with tracheotomy.

Nasopharyngeal glioma causing respiratory distress in a neonate: Transoral endoscopic excision

April 30, 2010     Young Hak Park, MD, Sung Won Kim, MD, PhD, Seung Ho Cho, MD, and Yong Woo Choi, MD
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Abstract

Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital midline tumors made up of heterotopic neuroglial tissue. They have the potential for intracranial extension. They are commonly seen in newborns and children, and rarely in adults. Preoperative diagnostic imaging is essential to delineate the exact location, limits, and extensions of the tumor and thus to determine the appropriate surgical approach. Endoscopic surgery is considered appropriate for the removal of an intranasal glioma without intracranial extension. We describe a rare case of nasopharyngeal glioma in a newborn who presented with early respiratory distress, and we include a review of the literature.

Neurilemmoma presenting as a midline nasal mass in a pediatric patient

April 30, 2010     Gary D. Josephson, MD, Sapna A. Patel, MD, Laurie Duckworth, PhD, Melissa Kress, DO, and Jeffrey Goldstein, MD
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Abstract

We report a case of a neurilemmoma presenting as a midline nasal mass in a 13-year-old girl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasal neurilemmoma in a pediatric patient. Although this neoplasm is benign in nature, surgical resection is warranted to prevent recurrence, and it is the sole means of treatment. The overall prognosis is excellent, as was the case for our patient. We discuss the diagnosis and management of neurilemmomas and urge physicians not to exclude nasal neurilemmoma from the differential diagnosis in a pediatric patient who presents with a nasal mass.

Ectopic thymic tissue presenting as a neck mass in children: A report of 3 cases

April 30, 2010     Estie Meyer, MBChB, FCORL(SA), Wakisa Mulwafu, MBChB, FCORL(SA), Johannes J. Fagan, MBChB, FCS(SA), MMed(Otol), Robin A. Brown, MBChB, DCH(SA), FRCS(Edin), and Kathryn Taylor, MBChB, DCH(SA), MMed(Anat Path)
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Abstract

The presentation of ectopic cervical thymic tissue as an anterior neck mass is rare. We report 3 similar cases in 3 boys-2 who had a thymic cyst and 1 who had an ectopic cervical thymus. We discuss the radiographic presentation on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in these cases. We also review the typical histologic picture; histology is the only way of diagnosing this condition.

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