Pediatric Otolaryngology

Endoscopic view of an ethmoid mucocele in a pediatric patient

May 31, 2010     Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS, MBA, Dewey A. Christmas, MD, and Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
article

Stahl ear deformity associated with Finlay-Marks syndrome

May 31, 2010     Young S. Paik, MD and C.W. David Chang, MD
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Pediatric tracheotomy in special populations: Comparison of operative times and survival

May 31, 2010     Catherine A. Craig, MD, Ashley Brooke Robey, MD, and Debora W. Goebel, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to analyze various aspects of tracheotomy in children with abnormal laryngotracheal anatomy, a congenital cardiac anomaly, both, or neither. Our study population consisted of 53 children who had undergone tracheotomy performed by a single otolaryngologist; 12 patients had abnormal laryngotracheal anatomy and 9 had a cardiac anomaly. Mean operative times were significantly longer in both of these groups than they were in children with normal anatomy (69 vs. 50 min; p < 0.0001) and in children with no cardiac anomaly (65 vs. 53 min; p < 0.05). Post-tracheotomy survival at 1 and 2 years for children with a cardiac anomaly was significantly worse than survival for those without (44 vs. 91%; p < 0.001). Likewise, children who had been intubated for 10 days or more had significantly worse survival than did those who were intubated for less than 10 days (55 vs. 95%; p < 0.001). Finally, we found that the patients with prolonged intubation, respiratory failure, and a cardiac surgical history had higher mortality rates associated with tracheotomy.

Nasopharyngeal glioma causing respiratory distress in a neonate: Transoral endoscopic excision

April 30, 2010     Young Hak Park, MD, Sung Won Kim, MD, PhD, Seung Ho Cho, MD, and Yong Woo Choi, MD
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Abstract

Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital midline tumors made up of heterotopic neuroglial tissue. They have the potential for intracranial extension. They are commonly seen in newborns and children, and rarely in adults. Preoperative diagnostic imaging is essential to delineate the exact location, limits, and extensions of the tumor and thus to determine the appropriate surgical approach. Endoscopic surgery is considered appropriate for the removal of an intranasal glioma without intracranial extension. We describe a rare case of nasopharyngeal glioma in a newborn who presented with early respiratory distress, and we include a review of the literature.

Ectopic thymic tissue presenting as a neck mass in children: A report of 3 cases

April 30, 2010     Estie Meyer, MBChB, FCORL(SA), Wakisa Mulwafu, MBChB, FCORL(SA), Johannes J. Fagan, MBChB, FCS(SA), MMed(Otol), Robin A. Brown, MBChB, DCH(SA), FRCS(Edin), and Kathryn Taylor, MBChB, DCH(SA), MMed(Anat Path)
article

Abstract

The presentation of ectopic cervical thymic tissue as an anterior neck mass is rare. We report 3 similar cases in 3 boys-2 who had a thymic cyst and 1 who had an ectopic cervical thymus. We discuss the radiographic presentation on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in these cases. We also review the typical histologic picture; histology is the only way of diagnosing this condition.

Neurilemmoma presenting as a midline nasal mass in a pediatric patient

April 30, 2010     Gary D. Josephson, MD, Sapna A. Patel, MD, Laurie Duckworth, PhD, Melissa Kress, DO, and Jeffrey Goldstein, MD
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Abstract

We report a case of a neurilemmoma presenting as a midline nasal mass in a 13-year-old girl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasal neurilemmoma in a pediatric patient. Although this neoplasm is benign in nature, surgical resection is warranted to prevent recurrence, and it is the sole means of treatment. The overall prognosis is excellent, as was the case for our patient. We discuss the diagnosis and management of neurilemmomas and urge physicians not to exclude nasal neurilemmoma from the differential diagnosis in a pediatric patient who presents with a nasal mass.

Dermoid of the nasopharynx: An unusual finding in an older child

March 31, 2010     Eyal Russo, MD, Hananya Vaknine, MD, and Yehudah Roth, MD
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Esophageal hamartoma as an unusual cause of neonatal apnea and bradycardia

March 1, 2010     Jeffrey Coury, DO, Jonathan Steinfeld, MD, David Zwillenberg, MD, and Seth Zwillenberg, MD
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Abstract

Esophageal hamartoma is a rare entity, as only 7 cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature. Common symptoms include dysphagia, weight loss, and vomiting. Life-threatening airway obstruction can also occur. Because of the nonspecific nature of the symptoms, patients with these dangerous polyps are often misdiagnosed as having more common entities such as gastroesophageal reflux, peptic ulcer disease, or achalasia. Most of these tumors are missed on esophagoscopy and radiologic studies, and they can go undiagnosed for years. We diagnosed an esophageal hamartoma in an infant girl who had first presented when she was 8 days old with symptoms of apnea and cyanosis. The patient had undergone a multitude of tests since her birth, and she was eventually diagnosed with episodic bradycardia. When the patient was 6 weeks old, we discovered a polyp on nasopharyngolaryngoscopy, and we removed it by microdirect laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy. This patient was the youngest of the 8 who have now been reported to have been diagnosed with a hamartomatous polyp, and she was the only one to have presented with apnea (secondary to airway obstruction) and bradycardia. We recommend microdirect laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy to remove these pedunculated cervical esophageal lesions. A transcervical approach is warranted for sessile distal esophageal polyps. Esophageal polyps are an interesting entity in view of their rarity and intriguing presentations. Because esophageal obstructions can be life-threatening, further evaluation by laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy is warranted when symptoms of dysphagia, vomiting, intermittent apnea, bradycardia, and weight loss persist despite conventional treatment.

Myxoma of the temporal bone: An uncommon neoplasm

March 1, 2010     Deepika Sareen, MBBS, Ashwani Sethi, MS, Sumit Mrig, MBBS, Sonu Nigam, MD, and A.K. Agarwal, MS
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Abstract

We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a soft-tissue mass that filled the left external auditory canal and a discharge that resembled chronic suppurative otitis media. The patient underwent mastoid exploration with complete excision of the mass. Findings on the excision biopsy were consistent with a myxoma of the temporal bone. At follow-up 2 years postoperatively, the patient remained disease-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the 12th case of a myxoma of the temporal bone to be reported in the English-language literature.

Successful treatment of cutaneous hemangioma of infancy with topical imiquimod 5%: A report of 3 cases

March 1, 2010     Andrew J. Senchak, DO, Michael Dann, MD, Benjamin Cable, MD, and Glenn Bessinger, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Hemangioma of infancy is the most common benign tumor of childhood. Most of these tumors spontaneously regress over several years. However, many parents seek treatment for children with cutaneous hemangiomas because of the potential for disfigurement and the attendant psychosocial effects. We report our use of the nightly application of topical imiquimod 5% cream as an alternative to traditional management in 3 infants who presented with rapidly growing facial hemangiomas. After approximately 3 to 5 months of treatment, all 3 patients had experienced a near-complete resolution of their lesions without significant side effects. Based on our experience, we believe that topical imiquimod may be an important tool for the otolaryngologist who treats cutaneous hemangiomas.

Acute suppurative neonatal parotitis: Case report

February 1, 2010     Sardar U. Khan, DLO, FCPS, Peter G. O'Sullivan, BSc, MPhil, and John McKiernan, FRCPI
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Abstract

Neonatal suppurative parotitis is very rare. One review of the English-language literature spanning 35 years found only 32 cases. Most cases are managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy; early antibiotic treatment reduces the need for surgery. The predominant organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a new case of neonatal suppurative parotitis in a 3-week-old boy. The patient was diagnosed on the basis of parotid swelling, a purulent exudate from a Stensen duct, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria in culture. He responded well to 9 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy. We also discuss the microbiologic and clinical patterns of this disease.

Nasal foreign body as the cause of a subperiosteal orbital abscess in a child

February 1, 2010     Benjamin D. Webb, MD, Kevin D. Pereira, MD, MS (ORL), and Samer Fakhri, MD, FACS, FRCS
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Abstract

We present what to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of an orbital abscess as a result of acute rhinosinusitis caused by obstruction of the middle meatus secondary to the impaction of a nasal foreign body in a child. The patient, a 5-year-old Hispanic boy, had presented with left periorbital edema, eye pain, rhinorrhea, headache, and a fever. The presence of a nasal foreign body had been suggested by a finding of a low-density signal in the left anterior nasal cavity and middle meatus on computed tomography. Endoscopic drainage of the abscess through the involved sinuses revealed that the foreign body was a wad of cotton. The cotton was removed, and the patient recovered uneventfully.

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