Pediatric Otolaryngology

Osteosarcoma of the skull base in a 15-year-old boy

October 26, 2011     Gretchen M. Oakley, BA, Dary J. Costa, MD, Ron B. Mitchell, MD, and Cirilo Sotelo, MD
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Myofibroma of the zygomatic bone in an older child: A case report

July 13, 2011     Engin Acıoğlu, MD, Gül Özbilen Acar, MD, Yalçın Alimoğlu, MD, Harun Cansız, MD, and Sergülen Dervişoğlu, MD
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Abstract

Myofibroma/myofibromatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder that is part of a heterogeneous group of approximately 20 disorders that are classified primarily according to the proliferation of benign fibrous elements. These lesions can arise during a wide range of ages, with many occurring in the first decade of life, and they are slightly more common in males than females. The etiology of this disease is not well understood. Clinically, patients with myofibroma/myofibromatosis present with various signs, ranging from superficial, cutaneous, purplish macules to freely movable subcutaneous masses to deep-seated fixed lesions. The definitive diagnosis is made on histopathologic grounds. The destructive clinical behavior of myofibroma/myofibromatosis in the setting of insufficient pre- or perioperative diagnostic evaluations (e.g., a failure to perform fine-needle aspiration or frozen-section biopsy) may guide the clinician toward a radical surgical procedure rather than a simple excision.

Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child

July 13, 2011     Anaïs Rameau, MD, CM, MSc, Sumeet M. Anand, MD, and Lily H.P. Nguyen, MD, CM, MSc, FRCS(C)
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Abstract

A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

Lateral sinus thrombosis in children: A review

June 13, 2011     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO
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Abstract

A retrospective study was undertaken to review the clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and outcome of otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) in children. All pediatric patients with LST seen in our department between 1999 and 2007 were included; there were 9 cases involving 6 boys and 3 girls whose ages ranged from 8 to 12 years. They had all been treated with antibiotics elsewhere prior to admission, and the duration of symptoms before admission ranged from 5 to 18 days. The most common presenting symptoms were ear discharge, headache, otalgia, and fever. Radiologic evaluation included computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent radical mastoidectomy with incision of the lateral sinus and removal of its content. There were no deaths. Pseudomonas and Proteus spp were the most commonly identified organisms. Otogenic LST still poses a serious threat that warrants immediate attention and care. It is often associated with other intracranial complications, such as cerebellar abscess. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the management of this disease. Early and aggressive surgical intervention of this otogenic complication can potentially minimize mortality.

Nasal septal deviation in the pediatric and adult populations

March 1, 2011     Shari D. Reitzen, MD, Wayne Chung, MD, and Anil R. Shah, MD
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Abstract

A significant proportion of the population has nasal septal deviation of varying degrees. Recent reports of such deviation occurring at younger ages suggest a congenital etiology. To the best of our knowledge, no previous clinical studies have compared the septal deviation of adult and pediatric populations with a uniform measure that focuses on the degree of deviation. We retrospectively analyzed computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans obtained from 81 patients who had undergone head and neck imaging for a variety of reasons. These subjects were divided into four age groups: younger than 4 months; 4 months to less than 5 years; 5 to 15 years; and more than 15 years. We used a measure of tortuosity to examine and compare nasal septal deviation among the different age groups. The tortuosity of the septum was measured at four precise points along the length of the septum on thin-section sinus CT and MRI. Tortuosity was defined as the ratio of the “actual” length of the septum to the “ideal” length of the septum, which was defined as the length of a straight line drawn from the superior to the inferior aspect of the septum. We found that subjects younger than 5 years of age exhibited significantly less tortuosity (p ≤ 0.017459) than did the older children and the adults. Therefore, we conclude that nasal septal deviation occurs at a higher frequency in older children and in adults when calculations of tortuosity are used as a measure. Our data may suggest that a noncongenital etiology is responsible for nasal septal deviation. However, given that the growth of the septum continues throughout childhood, our results do not preclude the possibility of a genetic predisposition to the later development of a deviated nasal septum.

Postaural inflammatory pseudotumor: An extremely unusual complication of trauma in a child

March 1, 2011     Ashwani Sethi, MS, Vikas Malhotra, MS, Deepika Sethi, MS, and Sonu Nigam, MD
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Abstract

We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a rapidly enlarging, painless mass behind the ear following trauma to the area. The mass was excised, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations revealed it to be an inflammatory pseudotumor. At 1 year postoperatively, the child exhibited no evidence of recurrence.

Characteristics of osteoma of the temporal bone in young adolescents

February 1, 2011     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO
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Abstract

The author conducted a retrospective review of the clinical presentation, management, and complications of temporal bone osteoma in young adolescents. The study population was made up of 9 patients-5 girls and 4 boys, aged 12 to 15 years at presentation (mean: 13.7)-who had been seen for radiologically and histopathologically proven temporal bone osteoma at the author's institution over a 9-year period. Of this group, 5 patients had extracanalicular osteoma (3 in the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, 1 in the squamous portion, and 1 in the mastoid antrum) and 4 patients had osteoma of the external auditory canal. Six of the 9 patients underwent surgical treatment; of the remainder, 1 refused surgery and 2 were managed conservatively with ongoing observation. All patients were followed for a minimum of 1 year, and no recurrences and no complications were observed during that time.

Traumatic hemorrhage and rapid expansion of a cervical lymphatic malformation

January 1, 2011     Nishant Bhatt, MD, Helen Perakis, MD, Tammara L. Watts, MD, PhD, and Jack C. Borders, MD
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A unique case of multiple sites of pneumatization of the sinonasal bony framework in a pediatric patient

October 31, 2010     Georgios Giourgos, MD, Elina Matti, MD, Paolo Carena, MD, and Fabio Pagella, MD
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Abstract

Anatomic variations of the sinonasal bony framework in the pediatric population are quite common. In children with such variations, however, bony pneumatization is uncommon. Moreover, pneumatization of the inferior turbinate in children is extremely rare; to the best of our knowledge, only 3 cases have been previously reported in the literature-none of which involved additional pneumatization variations of the sinonasal skeleton. Herein we present a new pediatric case that was unique in that an inferior concha bullosa coexisted with rarely seen pneumatized anatomic structures.

Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: A 45-year multi-institutional review

October 31, 2010     F. Christopher Holsinger, MD, Adam C. Hafemeister, MD, M. John Hicks, MD, PhD, Marcelle Sulek, MD, Winston W. Huh, MD, and Ellen M. Friedman, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a retrospective case-series review to identify the various diagnoses of neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in a pediatric population. Our study group was made up of 54 children-23 boys and 31 girls, aged 8 months to 16 years (mean: 9 yr). All patients had been diagnosed with a tumor of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses between Jan. 1, 1955, and Dec. 31, 1999, at one of four university-based, tertiary care referral centers. We compiled data on tumoral characteristics (location, size, and histopathology), morbidity and mortality, and rates of recurrence. Lesions included adnexal neoplasm, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, basal cell carcinoma, benign fibrous histiocytoma, blue nevus, chondrosarcoma, compound nevus, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, granulocytic sarcoma, hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioma, lymphoma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, ossifying osteofibroma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, port wine stain, rhabdomyosarcoma, Spitz nevus, and xanthogranuloma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest such study of its kind to date. We believe that the large size of this study and the data on disease incidence will allow clinicians to be better informed of the differential diagnosis of neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the pediatric population.

Neonatal suppurative parotitis

September 30, 2010     Alba Miranda, MD and Kevin D. Pereira, MD
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The presentation and management of fibromatosis colli

August 31, 2010     Kristen C. Lowry, BA, Judy A. Estroff, MD, and Reza Rahbar, DMD, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a systematic chart review to identify all infants with fibromatosis colli who had been seen at Children's Hospital in Boston from January 1999 through December 2004. We found 7 such cases, which involved 4 boys and 3 girls, aged 1 to 3.5 weeks at presentation. We compiled information on each patient's birth history, presenting signs and symptoms, significant medical history, imaging findings, management, follow-up, and outcome. Six of the 7 patients presented with a neck mass, and the remaining patient presented with neck “fullness.” Five patients developed torticollis at some point. All patients were treated conservatively with physiotherapy. Five patients experienced a complete resolution of signs and symptoms, and the other 2 experienced improvement. Based on our findings, we recommend that early management of fibromatosis colli include observation and physiotherapy to prevent or reverse torticollis and the craniofacial asymmetry that can result. Similarly attractive is the opportunity that physiotherapy provides for parents to involve themselves in the care of their newborn. It is important, therefore, to quickly identify fibromatosis colli as such in order to avoid unnecessary expenditures of resources and to promptly begin conservative treatment.

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