Facial Plastic/Reconstructive Surgery

Survival characteristics of injected human cartilage slurry in a nude mouse model: A preliminary study

July 13, 2014     Bounmany Kyle Keojampa, MD; Jacob Pieter Noordzij, MD; Bohdana Burke, MD; Joseph Alroy, DVM; Vartan Mardirossian, MD; Alphi Elackttu, MD; Zhi Wang, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a study to examine the viability, host response, and volume retention characteristics of drilled human septal cartilage slurry when injected into an athymic nude mouse model. We injected 0.2 ml of the slurry into the hind limbs of 6 mice. The mice were sequentially sacrificed over a period of 180 days. Histologic reviews of the hind limbs were performed to determine the viability of injected chondrocytes, host response, and volume retention. Specimens were obtained and histomorphologic analysis was performed at 1, 30, 90, and 180 days after injection. We identified viable cartilage throughout the study. Cartilage injection was well tolerated, and minimal inflammatory reaction occurred without significant adverse effects. The injected bolus of cartilage was found to have progressively dispersed throughout the muscle over time. Our findings warrant further investigation with a larger cohort of nude mice or possibly human subjects.

Reinnervation of facial muscles with only a cross-facial nerve graft in a 25-year-old patient with congenital facial palsy

July 13, 2014     Kamal Seyed-Forootan, MD; Hamid Karimi, MD; Esmaiil Hasani, MD
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Abstract

The standard method for managing chronic facial palsy is the two-stage free-muscle flap. We report a case involving a 25-year-old patient who had facial palsy from her birth. Twelve months after the first stage of a cross-facial nerve graft, we found that the voluntary movements of her facial muscles had returned. Within the following 12 months, she gained complete recovery of her movements on the affected side, as confirmed by electromyography studies. This case demonstrates that neurotization of facial muscles in chronic facial palsy is possible. However, further studies are needed to define the trophic effects or trophic mediators that can restore function to atrophied facial muscles and to determine which patients might benefit from the cross-facial nerve graft procedure without the free-muscle graft procedure.

Mitek bone-anchored static suture suspension of the oral commissure

June 8, 2014     Candace Hrelec, MD; Stephen Smith Jr., MD
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Static facial suspension plays an important role in long-standing facial nerve paralysis, and techniques continue to evolve. Although other procedures are less morbid and invasive than our dynamic facial technique, they also have their complications and limitations.

Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty

June 8, 2014     Aldo Benjamin Guerra, MD, FACS
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Abstract

Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months.

Harmonic Scalpel versus electrocautery and surgical clips in head and neck free-flap harvesting

June 8, 2014     Nichole R. Dean, DO; Eben L. Rosenthal, MD; Bruce A. Morgan, MD; J. Scott Magnuson, MD; William R. Carroll, MD
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Abstract

We sought to determine the safety and utility of Harmonic Scalpel-assisted free-flap harvesting as an alternative to a combined electrocautery and surgical clip technique. The medical records of 103 patients undergoing radial forearm free-flap reconstruction (105 free flaps) for head and neck surgical defects between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. The use of bipolar electrocautery and surgical clips for division of small perforating vessels (n = 53) was compared to ultrasonic energy (Harmonic Scalpel; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) (n = 52) free tissue harvesting techniques. Flap-harvesting time was reduced with the use of the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with electrocautery and surgical clip harvest (31.4 vs. 36.9 minutes, respectively; p = 0.06). Two patients who underwent flap harvest with electrocautery and surgical clips developed postoperative donor site hematomas, whereas no donor site complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Recipient site complication rates for infection, fistula, and hematoma were similar for both harvesting techniques (p = 0.77). Two flap failures occurred in the clip-assisted radial forearm free-flap harvest group, and none in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Median length of hospitalization was significantly reduced for patients who underwent free-flap harvest with the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with the other technique (7 vs. 8 days; p = 0.01). The Harmonic Scalpel is safe, and its use is feasible for radial forearm free-flap harvest.

The cosmetic Z-plasty: Restoring and refining an old technique for neck rejuvenation

May 7, 2014     Nicholas Vendemia, MD; David E. Rosow, MD; Anthony N. LaBruna, MD
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Abstract

Direct excision of the “turkey neck” skin fold with Z-plasty closure was introduced in the 1970s, but it has fallen out of favor in an era in which much emphasis is placed on minimizing visible scars. Although the newer techniques may effectively improve the aesthetic contour of the neck without leaving visible scars, they may not be optimal for selected patients who want a quick, “no-hassle” correction of their neck contour without changing the overall appearance of their face. We conducted a retrospective study of 50 patients-47 men and 3 women, aged 59 to 80 years (mean: 70)-who had undergone cosmetic Z-plasty performed by the senior author (A.N.L.) over a 9-year period. These patients either did not want or were not candidates for a face-lift or other procedure. Patients' charts were examined for demographic data, complications, and overall satisfaction with the procedure. In 46 of the 50 cases, the initial cosmetic result was acceptable to both the patient and the surgeon. The only complications were recurrent or residual areas of skin redundancy or dissatisfaction with the scar, but these were easily corrected with a second procedure using local anesthesia in the office setting. We conclude that cosmetic Z-plasty is a safe and effective means of correcting turkey neck deformity in patients who desire a procedure with a short operating time, a brief recovery period, a low complication rate, and a minimal effect on the overall appearance of their face. Although cosmetic Z-plasty is frequently considered to be antiquated, we believe refined versions of this procedure can still be of value to the plastic surgeon. In addition to describing our study results, we also describe in detail our surgical technique, including several contemporary refinements.

Saddle-nose deformities in the rheumatology clinic

May 7, 2014     Benjamin E. Schreiber, MA, MD, MRCP; Sarah Twigg, MRCP; Joe Marais, FRCS(ORL); Andrew C.S. Keat, MD, FRCP
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Abstract

Saddle-nose deformity can occur as a result of trauma to the nose, but it has also been well described in the setting of infections such as leprosy and syphilis and idiopathic inflammatory conditions such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener granulomatosis) and relapsing polychondritis. Since these deformities may also arise without an evident precipitating cause, they can pose a diagnostic conundrum. We review 2 cases of saddle-nose deformity that were treated at Northwick Park Hospital in Middlesex, England. The first patient was a 53-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis and deviation of the nasal septum. She subsequently developed a saddle-nose deformity and a septal ulcer. An autoimmune screen was negative, and histologic findings were nonspecific. She underwent successful reconstruction with a polyethylene implant. The second patient was a 21-year-old woman who presented with nasal obstruction and a nasal septal deviation. Two years later, she was diagnosed with Crohn disease and treatment with azathioprine was commenced. Eventually, the cartilaginous dorsum of her nose collapsed. A biopsy of the area revealed nonspecific, active, chronic inflammation. A polyethylene implant was placed to correct the deformity, but part of the implant became dislodged, and revision surgery was not successful. A subsequent revision was performed, and the early results were encouraging. Saddle-nose deformity may be a manifestation of underlying connective tissue disease, so it is important to detect and treat any such condition before embarking on surgical repair of the deformity. Our 2 cases indicate that this very deforming condition is poorly understood and treatment can be unsatisfactory.

Y-V alar base reduction

March 18, 2014     Grant S. Hamilton III
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For alar modification, removing tissue from inside the nostril to decrease width or from the lateral aspect of the ala to decrease flare works well in many patients, but these techniques may produce an unnatural result.

Correction of the severely deviated septum: Extracorporeal septoplasty

September 18, 2013     Toby Steele, MD; Jamie L. Funamura, MD; Benjamin C. Marcus, MD; Travis T. Tollefson, MD, MPH
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Extracorporeal septoplasty represents a novel and evolving technique for the surgical correction of the severely deviated septum.

Local anesthesia for nasal and sinus surgery

March 24, 2013     Jennifer R. Decker, MD; Jay M. Dutton, MD, FACS
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Knowledge of nasal anatomy, use of decongestants, a combination of topical and injectable medications, and adequate time for anesthesia effect allow the otolaryngologist to comfortably perform a wide variety of nasal procedures using local anesthesia.

The extended dorsal-shield graft in augmentation rhinoplasty

December 31, 2012     Giancarlo F. Zuliani, MD; Kailash Narasimhan, MD
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Rhinoplasty in ethnic populations often warrants a graft versatile enough to correct dorsal deficiency, underprojection, malrotation, and cartilage deficiency.

Intraorbital erosion of a malar implant resulting in mastication-induced vision changes

October 31, 2012     Kyle Hatten, MD; Robert E. Morales, MD; Jeffrey S. Wolf, MD, FACS
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Abstract

Complications of cosmetic malar augmentation are uncommon. We describe the unusual case of a 60-year-old woman who experienced vision disturbances (flashing lights and diplopia) while masticating. Ten years earlier, she had undergone bilateral malar enhancement with silicone implants. Imaging studies revealed that the implant on the right side had become displaced. The prosthesis had entered the orbit in the retrobulbar area and eroded the lateral zygomaticomaxillary buttress and the orbital floor. Both implants were removed, and the patient's symptoms immediately resolved. To the best of our knowledge, no case of vision changes secondary to erosion of the posterior orbit by a silicone malar implant has been previously described in the literature.

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