Larynx

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome induced by laryngeal lesions: Two cases

October 31, 2012     Taha Tahir Bekci, MD; Mesut Tezer, MD; Nurdogan Ata, MD; Levent Emre, MD
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Abstract

We describe 2 cases of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) that were found to be caused by the presence of laryngeal masses. Both patients presented with a long-standing history of snoring, gasping for air while sleeping, excessive daytime sleepiness, and morning headaches. In both patients, the lesions were discovered by fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy. Patient 1, a 46-year-old man, declined surgery, and his lesions (and OSAS) resolved spontaneously in 4 months. Patient 2, a 39-year-old man, did undergo excision of his mass, and he also experienced an alleviation of OSAS.

Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the larynx: Case report and literature review

October 8, 2012     Murat Ulusan, MD; Rasim Yilmazer, MD; Yasemin Ozluk, MD; Murat Enoz, MD; Yusufhan Suoglu, MD
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Abstract

Laryngeal osteosarcoma is an extremely rare disease. Only 23 cases have been published in the literature. Radiation-induced laryngeal osteosarcoma is even rarer; this is only the third such case to be reported. A 59-year-old man underwent radiotherapy for an in situ laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at another institution. Five years later he developed a laryngeal osteosarcoma, and a total laryngectomy was performed. Although previous reports showed a poor prognosis, our patient was without disease at the 8-year follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest disease-free follow-up to be reported in the literature. We also present a review of the world’s literature.

Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement

October 4, 2012     Elisa A. Illing, MD; Stacey L. Halum, MD
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Abstract

Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocyte disorder that is typically characterized by massive cervical lymphadenopathy. Isolated extranodal involvement is uncommon, and isolated laryngeal involvement is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement that led to recurrent dysphonia and airway obstruction. We discuss the challenges we faced in reaching a correct pathologic diagnosis and in deciding on an appropriate treatment regimen. Based on our experience, we believe that Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with a recurrent inflammatory (histiocytic) mass lesion of the larynx.

Prostate cancer metastatic to the larynx: A case report

September 7, 2012     Edward E. Katime, MD; Jasvir S. Khurana, MD; Oneida A. Arosarena, MD
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Abstract

Prostate cancer, which is the most common cancer among men, rarely metastasizes to the neck. We report a case of prostatic carcinoma that metastasized to the larynx in a 71-year-old man who presented with hoarseness and shortness of breath. Computed tomography (CT) detected a 2.9 × 3.1 × 2.6-cm mass that extended from the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages into the superior trachea. Findings on histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the laryngeal tumor were consistent with a metastasis of the patient’s earlier prostate cancer. CT of the chest later detected a soft-tissue mass in the right paraspinal area and other thoracic pathology that represented metastatic disease. The patient was treated with palliative radiation therapy. As androgen deprivation therapy continues to increase the life expectancy of prostate cancer patients, detection of distant metastases will likely increase, as well. Urogenital cancer metastatic to the head and neck should be considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal masses.

The effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on laryngopharyngeal sensitivity

September 7, 2012     Nicola A. Clayton, MScMed, BAppSc; Giselle D. Carnaby-Mann, MPH, PhD; Matthew J. Peters, MD; Alvin J. Ing, MBBS, MD
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Abstract

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be at increased risk of aspiration secondary to impaired swallow function. One possible cause of this impairment is a reduction in laryngopharyngeal sensitivity. The relationship between COPD and laryngopharyngeal sensitivity has not been previously determined. We conducted a study to investigate the effect of COPD on laryngopharyngeal sensitivity by using laryngopharyngeal sensory discrimination testing (LPSDT). Our study population was made up of 20 adults (mean age: 71.7 yr) with clinically proven COPD and 11 healthy, age-matched controls. All 31 subjects underwent LPSDT with the use of an air-pulse stimulator via a nasendoscope. The threshold of laryngopharyngeal sensation was evaluated by measuring the amount of air pressure required to elicit the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). We found that the patients with COPD had a significantly higher LAR threshold than did the controls (p< 0.001). We conclude that patients with COPD have significantly less mechanosensitivity in the laryngopharynx. This sensory change may place patients with COPD at increased risk for aspiration.

Primary laryngeal NK/T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case report

July 5, 2012     Draško Cikojević, MD, PhD; Ivo Glunčić, MD, PhD; Valdi Pešutić-Pisac, MD, PhD; Marisa Klančnik, MD, PhD; Zaviša Čolović, MD
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Abstract

The estimated prevalence of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma ranges from 10 to 35% of all cases; a finding in the larynx is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man who presented for evaluation of a 1-month history of minor swallowing difficulty, cough, and a foreign-body sensation in the throat. Fiberoptic endoscopy detected a tumor mass on the left aryepiglottic fold. Vocal fold mobility was normal. A biopsy specimen was obtained, and microscopic analysis revealed that the stratified squamous epithelium was partially eroded by abundant infiltrate that had occupied the entire submucosa. The submucosal infiltration consisted of lymphatic cells, including small, medium-sized, and large cells with an anaplastic appearance. On immunohistochemical analysis, the lymphoma cell population stained positive for CD3 and CD2, focally positive for CD56, and negative for CD4, CD5, and CD7. In addition, tumor cells expressed TIA-1, perforin, and granzyme B. A complete radiologic, pulmonologic, and hematologic workup found no other tumor. The patient underwent two cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, and he experienced complete tumor regression. At the 1-year follow-up, findings on fiberoptic endoscopy of the larynx were normal, and positron-emission tomography found no evidence of a recurrence. The prognosis for this type of tumor is good when the diagnosis is made in the early phase of the disease. Long-termfollow-up is advisable for the timely detection of possible local or distant recurrences, which are common.

Case report: Leiomyosarcoma of the parapharyngeal space

July 5, 2012     Pradipta Kumar Parida, MBBS, MS; Jaimanti Bakshi, MBBS, MS; Sanjeev Bhagat, MBBS, MS; Ramandeep Singh Virk, MBBS, MS
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Abstract

Leiomyosarcoma is usually found in the female genital tract, the retroperitoneum, the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, and subcutaneous tissues. An appearance of this malignant tumor in the parapharyngeal space is extremely rare and may be difficult to diagnose. Because of its rarity, little information exists on management and prognosis. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with a parapharyngeal space leiomyosarcoma who was treated with total excision of the tumor and postoperative radiotherapy. At follow-up 6 months postoperatively, he was well and free of disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third case of a leiomyosarcoma in the parapharyngeal area to be reported in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of leiomyosarcoma in this aspect.

Acute candidal pharyngolaryngitis

July 5, 2012     Andrew Mallon, DO; Rima A. DeFatta, MD; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Use of inhaled steroids has been identified as a risk factor for the development of laryngeal candidiasis. Therefore, if dysphonia, cough, and general laryngeal irritation occur in a patient using inhaled steroids, the possibility of laryngeal candidiasis should be considered.

Laryngeal schwannoma excised under direct laryngoscopy: Case report

April 30, 2012     Iosif Vital, MD; Dan M. Fliss, MD; Jacob T. Cohen, MD
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Abstract

Laryngeal schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are extremely rare, and they present the otorhinolaryngologist with diagnostic and management challenges. These lesions usually present as a submucosal mass, and they are always a potential threat to the airway. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman with a laryngeal schwannoma that arose from the left postcricoid area and covered the piriform sinus and arytenoid cartilage on that side. The tumor was completely excised under direct laryngoscopy with the use of a CO2 laser, and preservation of the mucosal lining of the larynx was achieved.

Primary NK/T-cell lymphoma of the larynx

April 30, 2012     Nechama Uri, MD; Yaakov Schindler, MD; Miriam Quitt, MD; Olga Valkovsky, MD; Geva Barzilai, MD
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Abstract

Laryngeal extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all laryngeal neoplasms; the B-cell phenotype is predominant. Lymphomas outside the nasal cavity are rare and highly aggressive. We present a case of primary natural killer T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma of the larynx that arose in a 45-year-old man. Because only a limited amount of data is available on laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma, the mainstay of treatment remains unclear, although some data suggest that radiotherapy alone is the best option. Our patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and he remained in remission 2 years later.

Laryngeal papilloma

April 30, 2012     Rima A. DeFatta, MD; Johnathan B. Sataloff; Grace E. Klaris; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Microbial colonization of Blom-Singer indwelling voice prostheses in laryngectomized patients: An Indian perspective

March 31, 2012     Suhail I. Sayed, MS, Rehan Kazi, MS, PhD, Shubhra Sengupta, MD, Abhay Chowdhari, MD, DM, and Mohan Jagade, MS, MCh
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Abstract

We analyzed a series of adults with an implanted voice prosthesis that had malfunctioned and required removal as a result of the attachment and growth of microorganisms. Our goal was to determine the characteristics of these colonizing microbes. We swabbed the esophageal side of each prosthesis to obtain microbial flora for analysis with standard culture media. In all, we studied 22 prostheses in 18 patients (3 patients had received multiple prostheses). We found mixed contamination (both yeast and bacteria) in 19 of the 22 cultures (86.4%); the other 3 cultures yielded bacteria only, and there was no instance of yeast only. The most common yeast isolated was Candida albicans (68.2% of cultures), and the most common bacterium was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (63.6%). The average lifetime of the prostheses was 201 days (∼6 mo, 3 wk). This study, which was the first of its kind in India, revealed that the microbial picture here was different from that found in previously reported studies of European populations. We presume the differences are attributable to different lifestyles and dietary habits.

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