Larynx

Giant cell tumor of the larynx: A case of malignant sarcomatous transformation

June 11, 2013     Richard J. Vivero, MD; Sandeep P. Dave, MD; Carmen R. Gomez, MD; and Donald T. Weed, MD
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Abstract

We report what is to the best of our knowledge the first case of malignant transformation of a giant cell tumor of the larynx. The patient, a 34-year-old man, presented to our tertiary care university teaching hospital where he underwent hemilaryngopharyngectomy with radial forearm free flap reconstruction and 11 of 15 cycles of chemotherapy. He remained disease-free at approximately 6 years and 4 months of follow-up. The patient is decannulated and continues to have a good voice with excellent quality of life to this day. We discuss the patient's clinical course and subsequent treatment within the context of a review of the current literature regarding this disease entity. Our experience demonstrates that giant cell tumor of the larynx may present as a malignant neoplasm without adversely affecting the patient's prognosis when treated aggressively with surgical resection and adjunct chemotherapy.

Previous presentation: The information in this article has been updated from its original presentation as a poster at The Triologic Society's Combined Southern and Middle Sections Meeting; January 8-11, 2009; Bonita Springs, Fla.

Laryngeal plexiform neurofibroma in a child

June 11, 2013     Fikret Kasapoglu, MD; Talip Ozdemircan, MD; and Levent Erisen, MD
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Abstract

Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetically inherited, autosomal dominant disease, characterized by multiple cafe au lait spots, cutaneous neurofibromas and “Lisch nodules.” Neurofibromatosis can develop from a neural source at any age. However, neurofibroma of the larynx is extremely rare and is usually manifested by obstructive airway symptoms. We encountered a 5-year-old child presenting with stridor and dyspnea, who had a diagnosis of laryngeal plexiform neurofibroma. The purpose of our report is the consideration of laryngeal NF in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea in infants and children.

Bilateral Gore-Tex implant extrusion following type I thyroplasty

March 24, 2013     Farhad R. Chowdhury, DO; Adam L. Baker, MD; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Gore-Tex thyroplasty permits easy revision, and minor adjustments can be made, often without removing and replacing the entire prosthesis.

Malignant melanoma metastatic to the larynx: A case report

January 24, 2013     Aliasghar Arabi Mianroodi, MD; Tourajreza Mirshekari, MD; Aliakbar Taheri, MD
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Abstract

Malignant melanoma of the larynx is a rare cancer that can appear as a primary tumor or as a metastasis from a cutaneous head and neck primary. To the best of our knowledge, only 60 cases of primary laryngeal melanoma have been reported in the world literature. Melanomas metastatic to the larynx are even more rare, as only 24 cases have been previously reported. Survival is poor, and recurrence is uncommon. We describe a new case of a malignant melanoma metastatic to the larynx, which represents the first such case in Iran.

Thyroid cartilage fracture following percutaneous tracheotomy tube placement

December 31, 2012     Jaime Eaglin Moore, MD and Andrew Heller, MD
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Patients whose body mass index (BMI) is 30 or greater have a higher likelihood of a distorted anatomy, which can make tracheotomy tube placement difficult.

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx with transglottic involvement in a child: A case report

December 31, 2012     Sanjeev Bhagat, MS; Saurabh Varshney, MS; Rakesh K. Singh, MS; Sampan Bist, MS
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Abstract

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the larynx is one of the rarest tumors in the pediatric age group. Our review of the English-language literature found only 1 previously reported case of a laryngeal MEC in a child. We present what to the best of our knowledge is the first case of a pediatric MEC of the larynx with transglottic involvement. Our patient was a 12-year-old girl who presented with long-standing hoarseness and recent dysphagia, breathing difficulty, and pain radiating to the left ear. Investigation revealed the presence of an endophytic mass in the larynx. Histopathologic examination of biopsy tissue identified the mass as a low-grade MEC. The patient was scheduled to undergo a total laryngectomy 1 week later, but she did not report for surgery. Three weeks later, she presented to the emergency department in a semiconscious state and in respiratory distress. Despite all resuscitative measures, she died.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome induced by laryngeal lesions: Two cases

October 31, 2012     Taha Tahir Bekci, MD; Mesut Tezer, MD; Nurdogan Ata, MD; Levent Emre, MD
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Abstract

We describe 2 cases of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) that were found to be caused by the presence of laryngeal masses. Both patients presented with a long-standing history of snoring, gasping for air while sleeping, excessive daytime sleepiness, and morning headaches. In both patients, the lesions were discovered by fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy. Patient 1, a 46-year-old man, declined surgery, and his lesions (and OSAS) resolved spontaneously in 4 months. Patient 2, a 39-year-old man, did undergo excision of his mass, and he also experienced an alleviation of OSAS.

Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the larynx: Case report and literature review

October 8, 2012     Murat Ulusan, MD; Rasim Yilmazer, MD; Yasemin Ozluk, MD; Murat Enoz, MD; Yusufhan Suoglu, MD
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Abstract

Laryngeal osteosarcoma is an extremely rare disease. Only 23 cases have been published in the literature. Radiation-induced laryngeal osteosarcoma is even rarer; this is only the third such case to be reported. A 59-year-old man underwent radiotherapy for an in situ laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at another institution. Five years later he developed a laryngeal osteosarcoma, and a total laryngectomy was performed. Although previous reports showed a poor prognosis, our patient was without disease at the 8-year follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest disease-free follow-up to be reported in the literature. We also present a review of the world’s literature.

Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement

October 4, 2012     Elisa A. Illing, MD; Stacey L. Halum, MD
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Abstract

Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocyte disorder that is typically characterized by massive cervical lymphadenopathy. Isolated extranodal involvement is uncommon, and isolated laryngeal involvement is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement that led to recurrent dysphonia and airway obstruction. We discuss the challenges we faced in reaching a correct pathologic diagnosis and in deciding on an appropriate treatment regimen. Based on our experience, we believe that Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with a recurrent inflammatory (histiocytic) mass lesion of the larynx.

Prostate cancer metastatic to the larynx: A case report

September 7, 2012     Edward E. Katime, MD; Jasvir S. Khurana, MD; Oneida A. Arosarena, MD
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Abstract

Prostate cancer, which is the most common cancer among men, rarely metastasizes to the neck. We report a case of prostatic carcinoma that metastasized to the larynx in a 71-year-old man who presented with hoarseness and shortness of breath. Computed tomography (CT) detected a 2.9 × 3.1 × 2.6-cm mass that extended from the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages into the superior trachea. Findings on histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the laryngeal tumor were consistent with a metastasis of the patient’s earlier prostate cancer. CT of the chest later detected a soft-tissue mass in the right paraspinal area and other thoracic pathology that represented metastatic disease. The patient was treated with palliative radiation therapy. As androgen deprivation therapy continues to increase the life expectancy of prostate cancer patients, detection of distant metastases will likely increase, as well. Urogenital cancer metastatic to the head and neck should be considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal masses.

The effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on laryngopharyngeal sensitivity

September 7, 2012     Nicola A. Clayton, MScMed, BAppSc; Giselle D. Carnaby-Mann, MPH, PhD; Matthew J. Peters, MD; Alvin J. Ing, MBBS, MD
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Abstract

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be at increased risk of aspiration secondary to impaired swallow function. One possible cause of this impairment is a reduction in laryngopharyngeal sensitivity. The relationship between COPD and laryngopharyngeal sensitivity has not been previously determined. We conducted a study to investigate the effect of COPD on laryngopharyngeal sensitivity by using laryngopharyngeal sensory discrimination testing (LPSDT). Our study population was made up of 20 adults (mean age: 71.7 yr) with clinically proven COPD and 11 healthy, age-matched controls. All 31 subjects underwent LPSDT with the use of an air-pulse stimulator via a nasendoscope. The threshold of laryngopharyngeal sensation was evaluated by measuring the amount of air pressure required to elicit the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). We found that the patients with COPD had a significantly higher LAR threshold than did the controls (p< 0.001). We conclude that patients with COPD have significantly less mechanosensitivity in the laryngopharynx. This sensory change may place patients with COPD at increased risk for aspiration.

Primary laryngeal NK/T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case report

July 5, 2012     Draško Cikojević, MD, PhD; Ivo Glunčić, MD, PhD; Valdi Pešutić-Pisac, MD, PhD; Marisa Klančnik, MD, PhD; Zaviša Čolović, MD
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Abstract

The estimated prevalence of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma ranges from 10 to 35% of all cases; a finding in the larynx is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man who presented for evaluation of a 1-month history of minor swallowing difficulty, cough, and a foreign-body sensation in the throat. Fiberoptic endoscopy detected a tumor mass on the left aryepiglottic fold. Vocal fold mobility was normal. A biopsy specimen was obtained, and microscopic analysis revealed that the stratified squamous epithelium was partially eroded by abundant infiltrate that had occupied the entire submucosa. The submucosal infiltration consisted of lymphatic cells, including small, medium-sized, and large cells with an anaplastic appearance. On immunohistochemical analysis, the lymphoma cell population stained positive for CD3 and CD2, focally positive for CD56, and negative for CD4, CD5, and CD7. In addition, tumor cells expressed TIA-1, perforin, and granzyme B. A complete radiologic, pulmonologic, and hematologic workup found no other tumor. The patient underwent two cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, and he experienced complete tumor regression. At the 1-year follow-up, findings on fiberoptic endoscopy of the larynx were normal, and positron-emission tomography found no evidence of a recurrence. The prognosis for this type of tumor is good when the diagnosis is made in the early phase of the disease. Long-termfollow-up is advisable for the timely detection of possible local or distant recurrences, which are common.

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