Larynx

Invasive primary aspergillosis of the larynx presenting as hoarseness and a chronic nonhealing laryngeal ulcer in an immunocompetent host: A rare entity

July 13, 2014     Mimi Gangopadhyay, MD; Kaushik Majumdar, MD; Arghya Bandyopadhyay, MD; and Anup Ghosh, MS(ENT)
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Abstract

Primary aspergillosis usually affects the paranasal sinuses, orbit, ear, and lower respiratory tract. Laryngeal aspergillosis usually occurs as a result of secondary invasion from the tracheobronchial tree, more commonly in immunocompromised hosts. Primary laryngeal localization of Aspergillus infection is seldom encountered. We report the case of an immunocompetent 42-year-old man who presented with hoarseness and a laryngeal ulcer of fairly long duration. A malignancy was initially suspected clinically, but a laryngoscopic biopsy led to a diagnosis of invasive primary laryngeal aspergillosis. No other focus of aspergillosis was found on x-ray and computed tomography. After identification of Aspergillus niger on culture, inquiries revealed no exposure to steroids, cytotoxic drugs, or irradiation, and workups for malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis, and diabetes were negative. Although isolated laryngeal involvement is rare, aspergillosis may be considered in the differential diagnosis of a chronic nonhealing laryngeal ulcer that is clinically suggestive of a malignancy, even in an immunocompetent host.

A "nail-biting" case of an airway foreign body

May 7, 2014     Parker A. Velargo, MD; Jennifer D. McLevy, MD
article

While cases of large, completely obstructing foreign bodies in the subglottis would lead to sudden respiratory distress, the initial presentation of smaller foreign bodies in the subglottis can be quite similar to croup, presenting with biphasic stridor, cough, and/or the steeple sign.

The role of contact endoscopy in screening for premalignant laryngeal lesions: A study of 141 patients

May 7, 2014     Marisa Klancnik, MD; Ivo Gluncic, MD, PhD; Drasko Cikojevic, MD, PhD
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Abstract

At their earliest stage, pathologic lesions of the laryngeal epithelium are macroscopically invisible. Ideally, these lesions should be detected before their clinical manifestations appear so that prompt management can be initiated. However, most diagnostic modalities are unable to detect early premalignant lesions. We conducted a retrospective study of the use of contact endoscopy in analyzing the vocal fold mucosal epithelium in adults who had been operated on at our hospital under general anesthesia for various nonlaryngeal diseases. After we identified 71 such patients who were smokers, we chose an almost equal number of nonsmokers (n = 70) for comparison purposes. In all, our study population was made up of 141 patients-51 men and 90 women, aged 21 to 78 years (mean: 52). All patients had normal findings on preoperative laryngeal endoscopy. Our goal was to determine if the routine use of this diagnostic modality is justified in selected cases. Contact endoscopy identified dysplastic vocal fold lesions in 4 patients and chronic laryngitis in 3; all 7 of these patients were smokers. Since early laryngeal lesions are not macroscopically evident, early detection of these changes by other means is associated with a better prognosis and easier management. Our study demonstrates that the use of contact endoscopy during general anesthesia as a standard diagnostic method in long-time cigarette smokers is fully justified.

Resolution of laryngeal granuloma with high-dose prednisone

May 7, 2014     Matthew L. Mesick, MD; Philip A. Weissbrod, MD
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Laryngeal manifestation of pemphigus vulgaris is extremely rare and typically associated with ulcerations, bullae, and crusting.

Multiple plasma cell granulomas of the larynx in a young man

March 18, 2014     Courtney Shires, MD; Sandeep Samant, MD, FACS
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Abstract

Plasma cell granuloma of the larynx is a rare benign lesion of unknown etiology, with only 21 cases reported previously. We report an additional case of plasma cell granuloma in which a 26-year-old man experienced a 1.5 x 3.4-cm, completely obstructing subglottic lesion. Because of the patient's young age, history of hemoptysis, bleeding from his tracheostomy, and the rarity of plasma cell granulomas, the patient was assumed to have hemangioma until proven otherwise. He presented with a partially obstructing glottic lesion 4 months later. Both the subglottic and glottic lesions were excised endoscopically. Multiple modalities have been used to treat plasma cell granulomas, including radiation, endoscopic CO2 laser ablation, high-dose prednisone, and open excision. In our case, steroids were given in the interim between the 2 excisions. This is the first report of a patient with two laryngeal plasma cell granulomas and the 22nd reported case of laryngeal plasma cell granuloma.

Conservative cricoid surgery for chondrosarcoma: A case report

February 12, 2014     Elena Gaio, MD; Giandomenico Maggiore, MD; Alessandra Canesso, MD; and Riccardo Artico, MD
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Abstract

We present the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with hoarseness and progressively worsening dyspnea. Findings on laryngoscopy and computed tomography strongly suggested the presence of a chondrosarcoma. The patient underwent open surgery for removal of the lesion with wide margins. Reconstruction was carried out with two segments of costal cartilage. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare, malignant, usually well-differentiated neoplasms that should be treated with conservative surgery. Recurrences should be treated more aggressively.

Recurrent pyogenic granuloma in a noncompliant patient

January 21, 2014     David Galos, MD; Farhad R. Chowdhury, DO; Reena Gupta, MD; Yolanda D. Heman-Ackah, MD; and Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Patients occasionally develop multiple recurrent granulomas even after excellent reflux control (including fundoplication), voice therapy, surgical removal (including steroid injection into the base of the granuloma), angiolytic laser therapy, and other treatments.

A case of cicatricial pemphigoid of the larynx successfully treated with plasmapheresis therapy

October 23, 2013     Takeshi Kusunoki, MD; Katsuhisa Ikeda, MD
article

Conventional therapy for cicatricial pemphigoid has consisted of the administration of a steroid alone or a steroid plus an immunosuppressant.

Larynx: Nodules and polyps

September 18, 2013     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
article

Nodules usually affect the anterior to middle thirds of the true vocal folds, and they are nearly always bilateral.

A systematic review of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for laryngopharyngeal reflux

August 21, 2013     Uchechukwu C. Megwalu, MD
article

Abstract

The author performed a MEDLINE literature search to identify and evaluate all randomized, placebo-controlled trials of the treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) with an oral proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) that have been published since 1966. Eight such trials that included a total of 358 patients were identified. These eight studies contained seven different definitions of LPR. Validity scores (maximum: 9) ranged from 5 to 9 (mean: 7.5). One study investigated low-dose once-daily therapy, two studies investigated low-dose twice-daily therapy, and five studies investigated high-dose twice-daily therapy. Outcomes measures were not consistent among studies, and most studies used unvalidated outcomes measures. Only two studies found that a PPI was significantly better than placebo-one in the low-dose twice-daily group and one in the high-dose twice-daily group. The author concludes that the current body of literature is insufficient to draw reliable conclusions about the efficacy of PPI therapy for the treatment of LPR.

Comparison of complication rates associated with stapling and traditional suture closure after total laryngectomy for advanced cancer

August 21, 2013     Brett A. Miles, DDS, MD; Deborah Larrison, MD; and Larry L. Myers, MD
article

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective, matched-cohort, case-control study to compare complication rates associated with two wound closure procedures-stapling vs. traditional hand suturing-following total laryngectomy. Our study population was made up of 42 consecutively presenting patients-38 men and 4 women, aged 34 to 92 years (mean: 60.3) whose pharyngotomies were amenable to primary closure. Of this group, 37 patients had active endolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2 patients had inactive endolaryngeal SCC, 2 patients had thyroid cancer, and 1 patient had been treated for chronic aspiration. A total of 26 patients (61.9%) had undergone traditional suture closure of the neopharynx (suture group) and 16 patients (38.1%) had undergone closure with a linear stapling device (staple group). Other than the fact that the patients in the staple group were significantly older than those in the suture group (median: 71.0 vs. 56.5 yr, p = 0.002), there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of comorbidities or cricopharyngeal myotomy, tracheoesophageal puncture, or neck dissection. There was a total of 8 postoperative infections-5 in the staple group (31.3%) and 3 in the suture group (11.5%)-not a statistically significant difference. Fistulas occurred in 4 staple patients (25.0%) and 6 suture patients (23.1%)-again, not statistically significant. We conclude that in appropriately selected patients, primary closure of the neopharynx can be safely and effectively achieved with a linear stapling device.

Synovial sarcoma of the larynx treated by supraglottic laryngectomy: Case report and literature review

July 21, 2013     Kuauhyama Luna-Ortiz, MD; Ana Maria Cano-Valdez, MD; Isabela Werneck da Cunha, MD; Adalberto Mosqueda-Taylor, DDS
article

Abstract

We describe a case of synovial sarcoma of the larynx, and we discuss the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in confirming the diagnosis. The patient was a 21-year-old woman who presented with a recurrence of a previously resected supraglottic tumor of the aryepiglottic folds. A horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy was performed, and the 0.5-cm tumor was resected. Histopathologic study suggested that it was a biphasic malignant tumor compatible with a synovial sarcoma. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by FISH immunohistochemistry with the use of an SYT break-apart probe. The patient recovered satisfactorily, but at follow-up 5 years and 4 months later, tumoral activity was evident in the left side of the neck. A biopsy found that 5 lymph nodes contained a metastasis of the synovial sarcoma. Again, a bilateral neck dissection was performed, and it revealed that 16 of 16 right-side nodes and 36 of 36 left-side nodes were negative. Two months later, the patient received 46 Gy of radiotherapy in 23 sessions. She remained free of disease during 2 more years of follow-up. Synovial sarcoma of the larynx is a rare entity. Organ preservation seems to be indicated in these cases. The histologic diagnosis may be difficult. In this case, the identification of a genetic mutation corroborated the diagnosis.

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