Esophagus

Esophageal spasm

November 22, 2011     Ashli K. O'Rourke, MD, Paul M. Weinberger, MD, and Gregory N. Postma, MD
article

Giant esophageal inlet patch

August 15, 2011     Michele P. Morrison, DO and Gregory N. Postma, MD
article

Bilateral tonsillar and esophageal Kaposi sarcoma in an HIV-negative patient

July 13, 2011     Irem Hicran Ozbudak, MD, Kenan Guney, MD, Derya Mutlu, MD, Tekinalp Gelen, MD, and Gulay Ozbilim, MD
article

Abstract

Tonsillar involvement in Kaposi sarcoma is extremely rare, as only a few such cases have been reported; all but 1 of these previously reported cases occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe what to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of concurrent bilateral tonsillar and esophageal Kaposi sarcoma in an HIV-negative patient. A 68-year-old man presented with sore throat and dysphagia. Clinical examination revealed the presence of bilateral and asymmetrical tonsillar masses, as well as generalized lymphadenopathy in the cervical chain. The masses were resected, and findings on histopathologic analysis were consistent with Kaposi sarcoma. In addition, human herpesvirus 8 was demonstrated on a tonsil specimen by polymerase chain reaction, and microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma was also detected. Later, another Kaposi sarcoma lesion was detected in the lower third of the esophagus. We recommend that clinicians not discount the possibility of oral classic Kaposi sarcoma in the workup of an immunocompetent patient with oral vascular lesions.

Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child

July 13, 2011     Anaïs Rameau, MD, CM, MSc, Sumeet M. Anand, MD, and Lily H.P. Nguyen, MD, CM, MSc, FRCS(C)
article

Abstract

A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

Scleroderma

April 30, 2011     Michele P. Morrison, DO, Paul M. Weinberger, MD, and Gregory N. Postma, MD
article

Delayed pharyngoesophageal reconstruction with combined local and regional flaps: A case report

March 1, 2011     Fábio Roberto Pinto, MD, PhD and Jossi Ledo Kanda, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

We describe an unusual technique for performing delayed pharyngoesophageal reconstruction following circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy. The patient was a 52-year-old man who underwent a circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy for the treatment of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. In view of the patient's poor clinical status, we opted to perform a pharyngostomy and an esophagostomy and to postpone pharyngoesophageal reconstruction for a more appropriate occasion. After the patient's clinical condition had sufficiently improved, the repair was planned. Microsurgical flaps were contraindicated because the blood flow through the cervical vessels was unreliable. Pharyngoesophageal continuity was restored with a cervical flap vascularized by the prevertebral fascia, a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and a deltopectoralis flap. A reasonable degree of deglutition was achieved, and no signs of stricture were detected. Although our technique was unusual, we believed that it might provide a valid alternative when a delayed pharyngoesophageal reconstruction is required and free flaps are contraindicated for any reason.

Cervical esophageal perforation and cricopharyngeal dysfunction

March 1, 2011     W. Brian Helton, MD, Raman Unnikrishnan, MD, and Thomas Gal, MD, MPH
article

Abstract

Spontaneous perforation of the esophagus is an uncommon event; when it does occur, it usually affects the thoracic esophagus. We present a rare and fatal case of spontaneous perforation of the cervical esophagus in a 68-year-old woman. We believe this rupture was related to a proximal outlet obstruction secondary to cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction.

Hypopharyngeal diverticulum formation following anterior discectomy and fusion: Case series

October 31, 2010     Terah J. Allis, MD, Nazaneen N. Grant, MD, and Bruce J. Davidson
article

Abstract

Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum is a rare complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Dysphagia is a well-documented complication associated with ACDF. It may result postoperatively from a variety of etiologies, including hardware displacement, pharyngeal edema, or vocal fold paresis. One rare cause of persistent dysphagia is the formation of a hypopharyngeal diverticulum, reported in the literature in 9 previous cases. Such diverticula after ACDF surgery may have pathogenesis that is distinct from that of typical Zenker diverticula. We report 3 new cases of hypopharyngeal diverticula in patients who underwent revision ACDFs. Variables assessed included age, sex, level of fusion, ACDF-related complications, and diverticulum management. Two patients underwent successful open surgical diverticulectomy and cricopharyngeal myotomy. In the third case, the patient had a small diverticulum close to the surgical hardware and minimal symptoms and was managed conservatively. Our cases, combined with the 9 previous cases, demonstrate commonalities, particularly with regard to the risk of revision spinal surgery and infection and subsequent hypopharyngeal diverticula development. Hypopharyngeal diverticulum can occur as a complication of ACDF and should be considered in patients with persistent dysphagia after surgery. In this patient population, open resection and cricopharyngeal myotomy are recommended.

Esophageal hamartoma as an unusual cause of neonatal apnea and bradycardia

March 1, 2010     Jeffrey Coury, DO, Jonathan Steinfeld, MD, David Zwillenberg, MD, and Seth Zwillenberg, MD
article

Abstract

Esophageal hamartoma is a rare entity, as only 7 cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature. Common symptoms include dysphagia, weight loss, and vomiting. Life-threatening airway obstruction can also occur. Because of the nonspecific nature of the symptoms, patients with these dangerous polyps are often misdiagnosed as having more common entities such as gastroesophageal reflux, peptic ulcer disease, or achalasia. Most of these tumors are missed on esophagoscopy and radiologic studies, and they can go undiagnosed for years. We diagnosed an esophageal hamartoma in an infant girl who had first presented when she was 8 days old with symptoms of apnea and cyanosis. The patient had undergone a multitude of tests since her birth, and she was eventually diagnosed with episodic bradycardia. When the patient was 6 weeks old, we discovered a polyp on nasopharyngolaryngoscopy, and we removed it by microdirect laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy. This patient was the youngest of the 8 who have now been reported to have been diagnosed with a hamartomatous polyp, and she was the only one to have presented with apnea (secondary to airway obstruction) and bradycardia. We recommend microdirect laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy to remove these pedunculated cervical esophageal lesions. A transcervical approach is warranted for sessile distal esophageal polyps. Esophageal polyps are an interesting entity in view of their rarity and intriguing presentations. Because esophageal obstructions can be life-threatening, further evaluation by laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy is warranted when symptoms of dysphagia, vomiting, intermittent apnea, bradycardia, and weight loss persist despite conventional treatment.

An island of normal mucosa in a sea of Barrett metaplasia

February 1, 2010     David A. Knuff, MD and Albert L. Merati, MD
article

Eosinophilic esophagitis

December 1, 2009     Kristin Kucera Marcum, MD, Ryan T. Mott, MD, and Catherine J. Rees, MD
article

Partial esophageal obstruction from anterior cervical spine hardware

August 31, 2009     Carissa Portone, CCC-SLP, Justin S. Golub, BA, and Michael M. Johns III, MD
article
PreviousPage
of 6Next