Vertigo

Dizziness in the elderly: Diagnosing its causes in a multidisciplinary dizziness unit

May 7, 2014     Roeland B. van Leeuwen, MD, PhD; Tjasse D. Bruintjes, MD, PhD
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Abstract

We conducted a study to determine the causes of dizziness in patients aged 70 years and older who had been referred to our multidisciplinary dizziness clinic between Nov. 1, 2000, and Dec. 31, 2008. This population was made up of 731 patients-254 men (34.7%) and 477 women (65.3%). During their consultations, all of these patients were evaluated simultaneously by an ENT surgeon and a neurologist. We were able to identify the cause of dizziness in 620 of these patients (84.8%). The two most common causes were benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which was found in 202 patients (27.6%), and hyperventilation/anxiety, which was diagnosed in 112 patients (15.3%). Based on our findings, we conclude that the cause of dizziness can be established in the vast majority of elderly patients. We also compare our findings in these older patients with those of a group of 2,556 younger patients who were seen at our hospital and with the findings reported in other studies.

Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

May 7, 2014     Akeem O. Lasisi, MBChB, FWACS, FMCORL; Oye Gureje, MBBS, PhD, DSc
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Abstract

Dizziness is common among older people, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in the sub-Saharan population. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of dizziness and its sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical correlates in 1,299 subjects-551 men (42.4%) and 748 women (57.6%), aged 65 years and older (mean: 77.3 ± 6.3)-who lived in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria. Among this group, 318 persons reported dizziness, which represents a prevalence of 24.5%. Univariate analysis of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables revealed that low economic status (p = 0.05) and smoking (p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with dizziness; however, on logistic regression analysis, only smoking (p = 0.01) was found to be significant. Neither sex (p = 0.07), age (p = 0.71), area of residence (p = 0.34), education level (p = 0.74), nor alcohol consumption (p = 0.44) had a significant correlation with dizziness. On multivariate modeling, significant clinical correlates in patients with dizziness included self-reports of a history of suppurative otitis media (p = 0.01), head injury (p = 0.03), and recurrent rhinosinusitis (p = 0.01); no significant correlation was seen between dizziness and hypertension, transient ischemic attack, and diabetes. Finally, balance testing conducted in a subset of 1,006 subjects revealed poor balance in 93 of 250 persons with dizziness (37.2%) and in 189 of 756 subjects without dizziness (25.0%) (p = 0.01). Logistic regression analysis of sex and age revealed that the probability of poor balance was 1.5 times greater among those persons with dizziness. We conclude that the high incidence of dizziness among community-dwelling elderly and its significant correlations with remediable medical conditions suggest the need for policy formulation for the care of the elderly in Nigeria.

Vertebral artery dissection: An unusual cause of transient ataxia, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss

December 20, 2013     Leila L. Touil, MBChB; Glen James Watson, FRCS, DOHNS; Michael Small, FRCS
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Abstract

We present the case of a 33-year-old man who was admitted with intermittent ataxia, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss as a result of a vertebral artery dissection following minor neck trauma. Our aim is to highlight the importance of obtaining magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and/or duplex color-flow imaging when presented with a case of fluctuating vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss with side-specific ataxia. Likewise, it is important to obtain the input of neurologists to optimize a patient's prognosis and minimize long-term sequelae.

An unusual cause of vertigo, tinnitus, and hyperacusis: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

December 31, 2012     LT Philip Gaudreau, MD; LCDR Justin Moy, MD; Fred Lindsay, DO
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Abstract

We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of vitiligo who presented with an insidious onset of neurologic, vestibular, ocular, and auditory symptoms. She had recently noted the onset of vertigo, tinnitus, and hypersensitivity to sound. Findings on audiometry were within normal limits, although the patient reported some auditory discomfort during the testing. The patient had a history of bilateral uveitis and peripheral neurologic symptoms. She was diagnosed with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and started on corticosteroid therapy. Her neurologic, vestibular, ocular, and auditory symptoms resolved. VKH syndrome is an uncommon cause of vertigo and hearing loss, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with autoimmunity-related inner ear symptoms.

Bilateral multicanal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo coexisting with a vestibular schwannoma: Case report

January 1, 2011     Selmin Karatayli-Ozgursoy, MD, Greta C. Stamper, AuD, Larry B. Lundy, MD, and David A. Zapala, PhD
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Abstract

We describe a rarely encountered case of coexisting bilateral multicanal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and vestibular schwannoma in a 56-year-old woman. The patient had presented with a 10-year history of dizziness and imbalance, and her vestibular findings were perplexing. We decided on a working diagnosis of BPPV and began treatment. After several months of canalith repositioning maneuvers had failed to resolve her symptoms, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed the presence of the vestibular schwannoma. This case serves as a reminder of the importance of differentiating between central and peripheral vestibular disorders, as well as central and anterior canal BPPV-induced down-beating nystagmus in order to establish the correct diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment.

A preliminary theoretical model of hydrodynamics in the inner ear

March 31, 2010     Vivian M. Yu, MD, Paul J. Strykowski, PhD, and Rick M. Odland, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Head movement should create a transient pressure imbalance across the membranous inner ear. We used basic concepts of fluid dynamics to develop a theoretical model of the inner ear. According to this model, two contiguous fluidic systems-the perilymphatic system and the endolymphatic system-are in hydrostatic equilibrium across a compliant membrane. Our model demonstrates that changes in resistance or compliance in one system results in a transient distortion of the membranous inner ear until equilibrium between the two systems is restored. The concept of hydrodynamic pressure changes in the inner ear has received little attention, but it may represent a new approach to understanding the inner ear and treating inner ear diseases.

Cerebellopontine angle ganglionic hamartoma: Case report

March 1, 2010     Sidrah M. Ahmad, BS, Fernando Garcia, MD, and Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Abstract

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) ganglionic hamartomas are rare. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with left-sided hearing loss of more than 4 years' duration and vertigo since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the intracanalicular segment of cranial nerve VIII on the left side, consistent with acoustic schwannoma. She opted for observation of the tumor. The patient returned 21 months after the initial evaluation with new-onset left facial weakness. At this time, a working diagnosis of facial nerve neuroma was made. The lesion was excised, and pathology confirmed a diagnosis of left-sided CPA ganglionic hamartoma. Otolaryngologists should be familiar with this uncommon tumor and include it in the differential diagnosis of CPA lesions.

Epidemiologic study to explore links between Ménière syndrome and migraine headache

October 31, 2009     Quinton Gopen, MD, Erik Viirre, MD, PhD, and John Anderson, PhD
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Abstract

Many authors have noted an association between Ménière syndrome and migraine headache. In an attempt to explore a possible link between these two disorders, we performed an epidemiologic study. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) includes interviews with tens of thousands of patients annually to estimate the incidence of various diseases. In this study the data collected from the NHIS for the years 1986 to 1988 and 1994 were analyzed to determine the incidence of Ménière syndrome and migraine headache. A total of 423,400 individuals were interviewed over the combined 4 years included in this evaluation. The incidence of migraine headache was calculated at 3.8%, and the incidence of Ménière syndrome was estimated at 0.14%. The incidence of migraine headache in patients with Ménière syndrome was estimated at 4.5%. The incidence of migraine headache was not substantially elevated in patients with Ménière syndrome when compared to the general population.

Complete round window niche occlusion for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome: A minimally invasive approach

July 31, 2009     Herbert Silverstein, MD, FACS and Mark J. Van Ess, DO
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Abstract

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome is a recognized condition associated with varying degrees of vestibular and auditory dysfunction. The authors present a case study of disabling SCD syndrome in a 37-year-old man who was successfully treated with a complete round window niche occlusion via a transcanal approach. This case represents the first report of a transcanal complete round window niche occlusion for the treatment of SCD syndrome. A brief literature review and discussion of surgical techniques follow.

Pediatric neurotology

July 31, 2009     Kenneth H. Brookler, MD, MS, FRCSC
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Dizziness in a SCUBA diver

April 30, 2009     Kenneth H. Brookler, MD, MS, FRCSC
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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and other vestibular symptoms in Ménière disease

September 25, 2008     Michael M. Paparella, MD
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