Vertigo

Vertebral artery dissection: An unusual cause of transient ataxia, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss

December 20, 2013     Leila L. Touil, MBChB; Glen James Watson, FRCS, DOHNS; Michael Small, FRCS
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Abstract

We present the case of a 33-year-old man who was admitted with intermittent ataxia, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss as a result of a vertebral artery dissection following minor neck trauma. Our aim is to highlight the importance of obtaining magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and/or duplex color-flow imaging when presented with a case of fluctuating vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss with side-specific ataxia. Likewise, it is important to obtain the input of neurologists to optimize a patient's prognosis and minimize long-term sequelae.

An unusual cause of vertigo, tinnitus, and hyperacusis: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

December 31, 2012     LT Philip Gaudreau, MD; LCDR Justin Moy, MD; Fred Lindsay, DO
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Abstract

We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of vitiligo who presented with an insidious onset of neurologic, vestibular, ocular, and auditory symptoms. She had recently noted the onset of vertigo, tinnitus, and hypersensitivity to sound. Findings on audiometry were within normal limits, although the patient reported some auditory discomfort during the testing. The patient had a history of bilateral uveitis and peripheral neurologic symptoms. She was diagnosed with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and started on corticosteroid therapy. Her neurologic, vestibular, ocular, and auditory symptoms resolved. VKH syndrome is an uncommon cause of vertigo and hearing loss, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with autoimmunity-related inner ear symptoms.

Bilateral multicanal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo coexisting with a vestibular schwannoma: Case report

January 1, 2011     Selmin Karatayli-Ozgursoy, MD, Greta C. Stamper, AuD, Larry B. Lundy, MD, and David A. Zapala, PhD
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Abstract

We describe a rarely encountered case of coexisting bilateral multicanal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and vestibular schwannoma in a 56-year-old woman. The patient had presented with a 10-year history of dizziness and imbalance, and her vestibular findings were perplexing. We decided on a working diagnosis of BPPV and began treatment. After several months of canalith repositioning maneuvers had failed to resolve her symptoms, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed the presence of the vestibular schwannoma. This case serves as a reminder of the importance of differentiating between central and peripheral vestibular disorders, as well as central and anterior canal BPPV-induced down-beating nystagmus in order to establish the correct diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment.

A preliminary theoretical model of hydrodynamics in the inner ear

March 31, 2010     Vivian M. Yu, MD, Paul J. Strykowski, PhD, and Rick M. Odland, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Head movement should create a transient pressure imbalance across the membranous inner ear. We used basic concepts of fluid dynamics to develop a theoretical model of the inner ear. According to this model, two contiguous fluidic systems-the perilymphatic system and the endolymphatic system-are in hydrostatic equilibrium across a compliant membrane. Our model demonstrates that changes in resistance or compliance in one system results in a transient distortion of the membranous inner ear until equilibrium between the two systems is restored. The concept of hydrodynamic pressure changes in the inner ear has received little attention, but it may represent a new approach to understanding the inner ear and treating inner ear diseases.

Cerebellopontine angle ganglionic hamartoma: Case report

March 1, 2010     Sidrah M. Ahmad, BS, Fernando Garcia, MD, and Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Abstract

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) ganglionic hamartomas are rare. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with left-sided hearing loss of more than 4 years' duration and vertigo since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the intracanalicular segment of cranial nerve VIII on the left side, consistent with acoustic schwannoma. She opted for observation of the tumor. The patient returned 21 months after the initial evaluation with new-onset left facial weakness. At this time, a working diagnosis of facial nerve neuroma was made. The lesion was excised, and pathology confirmed a diagnosis of left-sided CPA ganglionic hamartoma. Otolaryngologists should be familiar with this uncommon tumor and include it in the differential diagnosis of CPA lesions.

Epidemiologic study to explore links between Ménière syndrome and migraine headache

October 31, 2009     Quinton Gopen, MD, Erik Viirre, MD, PhD, and John Anderson, PhD
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Abstract

Many authors have noted an association between Ménière syndrome and migraine headache. In an attempt to explore a possible link between these two disorders, we performed an epidemiologic study. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) includes interviews with tens of thousands of patients annually to estimate the incidence of various diseases. In this study the data collected from the NHIS for the years 1986 to 1988 and 1994 were analyzed to determine the incidence of Ménière syndrome and migraine headache. A total of 423,400 individuals were interviewed over the combined 4 years included in this evaluation. The incidence of migraine headache was calculated at 3.8%, and the incidence of Ménière syndrome was estimated at 0.14%. The incidence of migraine headache in patients with Ménière syndrome was estimated at 4.5%. The incidence of migraine headache was not substantially elevated in patients with Ménière syndrome when compared to the general population.

Complete round window niche occlusion for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome: A minimally invasive approach

July 31, 2009     Herbert Silverstein, MD, FACS and Mark J. Van Ess, DO
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Abstract

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome is a recognized condition associated with varying degrees of vestibular and auditory dysfunction. The authors present a case study of disabling SCD syndrome in a 37-year-old man who was successfully treated with a complete round window niche occlusion via a transcanal approach. This case represents the first report of a transcanal complete round window niche occlusion for the treatment of SCD syndrome. A brief literature review and discussion of surgical techniques follow.

Pediatric neurotology

July 31, 2009     Kenneth H. Brookler, MD, MS, FRCSC
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Dizziness in a SCUBA diver

April 30, 2009     Kenneth H. Brookler, MD, MS, FRCSC
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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and other vestibular symptoms in Ménière disease

September 25, 2008     Michael M. Paparella, MD
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Gentamicin injections for Ménière disease: Comparison of subjective and objective end points

July 31, 2008     Ronald Leif Steenerson, MD, Robin B. Hardin, MA, and Gaye W. Cronin, OTD
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Abstract

This retrospective study reports the overall efficacy and comparative results of intratympanic gentamicin injections for disabling vertigo episodes. All patients received weekly injections for diagnosed Ménière disease. In Group 1 (81 patients), treatment end points were determined by subjective complaints of imbalance, with resolution of vertigo. In Group 2 (23 patients), treatment end points were determined when 2 or more values of nystagmus were demonstrated. (Group 2 patients were assessed before initiation of therapy for head-shaking, head-thrust, and spontaneous nystagmus using infrared video goggles.) After the final injection, all patients had audiograms and balance and oculomotor retraining. Gentamicin therapy was determined to be successful based on 3-month post-therapy findings of vertigo resolution, stable hearing, normalized nystagmus, and functional balance.

Can a disorder of the vestibular system underlie an etiology for migraine?

April 30, 2008     Kenneth H. Brookler, MD, FRCSC
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