Surgery

Transoral surgery alone for human-papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

February 25, 2013     Steven M. Olsen, MD; Eric J. Moore, MD; Rebecca R. Laborde, PhD; Joaquin J. Garcia, MD; Jeffrey R. Janus, MD; Daniel L. Price, MD; Kerry D. Olsen, MD
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Abstract

The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the oncologic and functional results of treating oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with transoral robotic surgery and neck dissection as monotherapy. A review was performed, including all patients who underwent transoral robotic surgery and neck dissection as the only means of therapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma from March 2007 to July 2009 at a single tertiary care academic medical center. We reviewed all cases with ≥24-month follow-up. Functional outcomes included tracheostomy dependence and oral feeding ability. Oncologic outcomes were stratified by human papillomavirus (HPV) status and tobacco use and included local, regional, and distant disease control, as well as disease-specific and recurrence-free survival. Eighteen patients met study criteria. Ten patients (55.6%) were able to eat orally in the immediate postoperative period, and 8 (44.4%) required a temporary nasogastric tube for a mean duration of 13.6 days (range 3 to 24 days) before returning to an oral diet. No patient required placement of a gastrostomy tube, and all patients are tracheostomy-tube-free. Among the HPV-positive nonsmokers (12/18, 66.7%), Kaplan-Meier estimated 3-year local, regional, and distant control rates were 90.9%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimated disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 100% and 90.9%, respectively. No complications occurred.

This study suggests that carefully selected patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma can be effectively treated with surgery alone with excellent functional and oncologic outcomes.

Idiopathic incus necrosis: Analysis of 4 cases

February 25, 2013     Leyla Kansu, MD; Ismail Yilmaz, MD; Volkan Akdogan, MD; Suat Avci, MD; Levent Ozluoglu, MD
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Abstract

We evaluated ossicular chain reconstruction in patients with idiopathic incus necrosis who have conductive hearing loss and an intact ear drum. The study included four patients (3 women and 1 man; the ages of the patients were 22, 31, 35, and 56 years, respectively) with unilateral conductive hearing loss, no history of chronic serous otitis media, an intact ear drum, normal middle ear mucosa, and necrosis of the long processes of the incus. On preoperative pure tone audiometry, air-bone gaps were 24, 25, 38, and 33 dB. Bilateral tympanometry and temporal bone computed tomography results were normal. All 4 patients underwent an exploratory tympanotomy. During the operation, the mucosa of the middle ear was normal, with a mobile stapes foot plate and malleus. No evidence of any granulation tissue was found; however, necrosis of the incus long processes was seen. For ossicular reconstruction, we used tragal cartilage between the incus and the stapes in 1 patient; in the other 3 patients, glass ionomer bone cement was used (an interposition cartilage graft also was used in the patients who received the glass ionomer bone cement). In all patients, air-bone gaps under 20 dB were established in the first year after surgery. In the ossicular disorders within the middle ear, the incus is the most commonly affected ossicle. While, the most common cause of these disorders is chronic otitis media, it may be idiopathic rarely. Several ossicular reconstruction techniques have been used to repair incudostapedial discontinuity.

Acute dystonic reaction to general anesthesia with propofol and ondansetron: A graded response

January 24, 2013     Matthew H.J. Size, MBChB, FRCA; John S. Rubin, MD, FACS, FRCS; Anil Patel, MBBS, FRCA
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Abstract

Propofol and ondansetron, alone and in combination, have been associated with acute dystonic reactions during recovery from anesthesia. We report the case of a 44-year-old woman who had undergone microlaryngoscopic fat injection to the vocal folds three times over a period of 10 months. Each procedure was performed by the same surgeon. On each occasion, the patient received an identical anesthetic that was administered by the same anesthetist. The anesthetic regimen included propofol and ondansetron. Following the first procedure, the patient experienced no reaction to these agents. However, she experienced a mild reaction after the second procedure and a severe acute dystonic reaction after the third. We believe this is the first report of a graded reaction to either propofol or ondansetron.

Endoscopic view of iatrogenic nasal septal perforations

December 31, 2012     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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While many surgically created nasal septal perforations are asymptomatic, others can create long-term problems.

Intraparotid arterial aneurysm treated with embolization followed by surgical resection

December 31, 2012     Daniel T. Ganc, MD; Charles Prestigiacomo, MD; Soly Baredes, MD
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Abstract

We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman who presented to a local facial plastic surgeon for evaluation of a cosmetic defect of the cheek of 1 month's duration. When imaging revealed the presence of a vascular mass, the patient was referred to us. Further imaging identified the mass as an intraparotid external carotid artery aneurysm. The decision was then made to treat the patient with embolization of the lesion followed by surgical resection the next day. During the resection, the lateral-most aspect of the aneurysm was found to be adherent to and splaying the facial nerve. The embolized mass and the surrounding fascial layer were removed, and the branches of the facial nerve were retracted superiorly and inferiorly. Dissection proceeded around the aneurysm in this plane. Blood loss during the procedure was minimal. On postoperative day 1, the patient exhibited minimal lower facial asymmetry. In this case, performing embolization prior to surgical resection appeared to be a prudent and efficacious strategy. The preoperative embolization greatly reduced the risk of damage to the facial nerve.

Rapidly developing iatrogenic hyponatremia in a child following tonsillectomy

October 31, 2012     Umit Taskin, MD; Omer Binay, MD; Cigdem Binay, MD; Ozgur Yigit, MD
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Abstract

Hyponatremia develops as a result of the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In rare cases, it develops as an iatrogenic complication. For example, acute iatrogenic post-tonsillectomy hyponatremia has been described in children following the infusion of hypo- or isotonic fluid. We report a case of rapidly developing post-tonsillectomy iatrogenic hyponatremia in a 5-year-old girl following an excessive infusion of hypotonic fluid. Her signs and symptoms began with nausea and vomiting and progressed to seizures and coma. We corrected the electrolyte disturbance by infusing a 3% sodium chloride solution until her neurologic manifestations disappeared, at which time her serum sodium concentration had risen back to 135 mEq/L. Otolaryngologists are not generally exposed to much information about hyponatremia, so we must be aware of its associated neurologic signs and symptoms.

Double fenestration of the internal jugular vein: A rare anatomic variant

October 8, 2012     Jagdeep S. Thakur, MBBS, MS; Dev R. Sharma, MBBS, MS; Narinder K. Mohindroo, MBBS, MS, DORL
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Even the most experienced head and neck surgeons can encounter problems during neck dissections in patients with rare anatomic variations in their major vessels, such as the internal jugular vein.

Endoscopic view of bilateral maxillary sinus cysts removed with a powered instrument

September 7, 2012     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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Powered instrumentation is a good choice for the removal of maxillary sinus lesions. It is efficient and safe and preserves normal sinus mucosa.

Clindamycin-induced neutropenia following major head and neck surgery

September 7, 2012     Robert S. Schmidt, MD; Evan R. Reiter, MD
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Abstract

A 64-year-old man undergoing major head and neck surgery received clindamycin for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. On the third postoperative day, he became acutely neutropenic. The neutropenia resolved 3 days later, after the administration of filgrastim. After ruling out other causes of acute neutropenia, we determined that the neutropenia was secondary to clindamycin toxicity. While clindamycin-induced neutropenia has been reported elsewhere, to our knowledge this is the first report of its occurrence following head and neck surgery. Otolaryngologists should be aware of this potentially serious reaction.

Mandibular condyle reconstruction with fibula free-tissue transfer

September 7, 2012     Eric J. Moore, MD; Steven S. Hamilton, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a study to evaluate functional and cosmetic outcomes following reconstruction of the mandibular condyle with direct placement of a vascularized free fibula. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had undergone hemimandibulectomy and condyle resection with immediate reconstruction at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., between Nov. 1, 2005, and Jan. 31, 2007. We found 7 such cases, all of which occurred in men aged 32 to 61 years (mean: 50.7). Six of these patients had a malignancy and 1 had osteomyelitis. Postoperatively, 6 patients had no difficulty with occlusion, which was rated as “good” or “excellent” at their 6-month follow-up visit; the other patient had an open-bite deformity, but he was able to masticate solid food and maintain an oral diet. Cosmesis was generally satisfactory, and all patients maintained intelligible speech. We conclude that free fibula transfer with direct seating of the fibula into the condylar fossa followed by aggressive physiotherapy provides acceptable functional reconstruction of the mandibulectomy-condylectomy defect.

A comparison of unilevel and multilevel surgery in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

August 10, 2012     Ümit Tunçel, MD; Hasan Mete İnançlı, MD; Şefik Sinan Kürkçüoğlu, MD; Murat Enoz, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study of 35 adults who had undergone tongue base suspension in addition to other surgery for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Our goal was to determine the most effective surgical approach by comparing these patients’ preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) with their postoperative scores at 6 months. The 35 patients were divided into three groups based on a preoperative assessment of their level of airway obstruction; the assessment included a determination of AHI and endoscopic findings during the Müller maneuver. Patients in group 1 (n = 9) exhibited unilevel obstruction, and they were treated with lateral pharyngoplasty; patients in group 2 (n = 13) also had unilevel obstruction, and they underwent Z-palatoplasty; patients in group 3 (n = 13) had multilevel obstruction, and they underwent combined surgery. Postoperatively, all three groups exhibited statistically significant improvements in AHI, but we determined that of the three approaches, multilevel surgery was significantly more effective (p < 0.001).

An adjustable implant for nasal valve dysfunction: A 3-year experience

August 10, 2012     Charles G. Hurbis, MD, FACS
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Abstract

A 3-year, single-center, prospective study was undertaken to measure the effect and long-term results of using the Monarch Nasal Implant to surgically correct nasal valve dysfunction. Thirty-nine patients were implanted, with follow-up lasting 36 months for 9 of the patients. Implant effectiveness and maintenance of effectiveness were determined through acoustic rhinomanometry and a subjective patient questionnaire. Rhinomanometry studies and patient questionnaires revealed a significant initial improvement in internal nasal valve areas and patient symptoms; the improvements were maintained or had even increased at 36 months. The cosmetic changes were acceptable to the patients. The Monarch Nasal Implant provides a consistent and lasting correction of nasal valve dysfunction with minimal drawbacks when properly used.

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