Otitis

Nontuberculous mycobacterial otomastoiditis: A case report

January 24, 2013     Li-Tai Tsai, MD; Ching-Yuan Wang, MD; Chia-Der Lin, MD; Ming-Hsui Tsai, MD
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Abstract

Nontuberculous mycobacterial otomastoiditis is rare and can be easily confused with various different forms of otitis media. We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with left-sided chronic otitis media that had persisted for more than 1 year. It was not eradicated by standard antimicrobial therapy and surgical debridement. After appropriate antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacteria was added to the therapeutic regimen, the patient improved significantly and the lesion had healed by 6 months. Based on our experience with this case, we conclude that early bacterial culture and staining for acid-fast bacilli in ear drainage material or granulation tissue should be performed when standard antimicrobial therapy fails to eradicate chronic otitis media of an undetermined origin that is accompanied by granulation tissue over the external auditory canal or middle ear. Polymerase chain reaction testing is also effective for rapid diagnosis. Surgical debridement and removal of the foreign body can successfully treat nontuberculous mycobacterial otomastoiditis only when effective antimicrobial therapy is also administered.

Complications of chronic suppurative otitis media: A left otogenic brain abscess and a right mastoid fistula

October 4, 2012     Yok Kuan Chew, MS; Jack Pein Cheong, MBBS; Abdullah Khir, MS; Sushil Brito-Mutunayagam, MS; Narayanan Prepageran, FRCS
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Abstract

Otogenic brain abscess and postauricular fistula are complications of chronic suppurative otitis media. We describe a rare case of bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media that caused a left temporal lobe abscess and a right mastoid fistula.

Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the tympanic membrane: A case report

September 7, 2012     Michael W. Chu, MD; Alice Werner, MD; Stephanie A. Moody-Antonio, MD
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Abstract

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign, non-Langerhans cell histiocytic lesion that generally affects infants and children. These lesions characteristically appear as a solitary, yellow, cutaneous nodule of the head, neck, or trunk. Subcutaneous and extracutaneous forms can involve the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, lung, gonads, pericardium, central nervous system, temporal bone, larynx, and eye. We describe the clinical presentation, imaging, histochemical findings, and management of a solitary JXG of the tympanic membrane in a 17-month-old girl. The patient underwent surgical resection and was without disease several months following surgery and reconstruction of the defect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a JXG of the tympanic membrane.

Interhemispheric subdural abscess: A rare complication of atticoantral ear disease

August 10, 2012     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO
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Abstract

A 14-year-old girl who had been experiencing ear discharge for the previous 3 years was referred to a tertiary care center for management of a 3-day history of severe headache and vomiting. Otolaryngologic examination revealed the presence of an atticoantral type of ear disease on the left side. Computed tomography detected an interhemispheric subdural abscess that had originated on the left side. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics, and she later underwent a mastoidectomy to clear the ear disease. She recovered without complications. Subdural empyema is the rarest complication of otitis media, and it is very rarely seen in an interhemispheric setting.

Is there an ototoxicity risk from Cortisporin and comparable otic suspensions? Distortion-product otoacoustic emission findings

March 1, 2012     Leonard P. Berenholz, MD, Dyana L. Rossi, MA, William H. Lippy, MD, and John M. Burkey, MA
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Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to use distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing to address the issue of possible ototoxicity from the use of neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone otic suspension following tympanostomy tube placement. We retrospectively reviewed our clinical records and identified 36 children (52 ears) who had met our three study criteria: (1) unilateral or bilateral placement of transtympanic ventilation tubes, (2) treatment for 3 to 5 days with neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone drops, and (3) postoperative evaluation by DPOAE testing. We identified another set of 36 children (52 ears) who had not received these drops and who had not undergone tube placement but who had been evaluated by DPOAE testing to serve as a control group. We found no significant differences in DPOAE amplitudes between the treatment and control groups. These findings are consistent with decades of clinical experience indicating that neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone otic suspension is safe when used responsibly.

Tuberculous otitis media

September 20, 2011     Min-Tsan Shu, MD, Cheng-Chien Yang, MD, and Kang-Chao Wu, MD

Lateral sinus thrombosis in children: A review

June 13, 2011     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO
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Abstract

A retrospective study was undertaken to review the clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and outcome of otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) in children. All pediatric patients with LST seen in our department between 1999 and 2007 were included; there were 9 cases involving 6 boys and 3 girls whose ages ranged from 8 to 12 years. They had all been treated with antibiotics elsewhere prior to admission, and the duration of symptoms before admission ranged from 5 to 18 days. The most common presenting symptoms were ear discharge, headache, otalgia, and fever. Radiologic evaluation included computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent radical mastoidectomy with incision of the lateral sinus and removal of its content. There were no deaths. Pseudomonas and Proteus spp were the most commonly identified organisms. Otogenic LST still poses a serious threat that warrants immediate attention and care. It is often associated with other intracranial complications, such as cerebellar abscess. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the management of this disease. Early and aggressive surgical intervention of this otogenic complication can potentially minimize mortality.

The pH of commonly used topical ear drops in the treatment of otitis externa

March 31, 2011     Chee-Yean Eng, MRCS, DOHNS and Amged S. El-Hawrani, FRCS(ORL-HNS)
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Abstract

Healthy ear canal skin has an acidic pH. Evidence suggests that reacidification of the ear canal may lead to resolution of otitis externa. The pH of 15 commonly prescribed topical ear drop preparations used in the treatment of otitis externa was measured using a Jenway 3020 pH meter with temperature compensation at 37.5°C. The pH values ranged from 2.89 to 7.83. Two-thirds of preparations tested were of acidic pH. The remaining one-third were alkaline. Reacidification of the ear canal may help in the treatment of otitis externa.

Otitic hydrocephalus: A report of 2 cases

June 30, 2010     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO
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Abstract

Otitic hydrocephalus is a rare intracranial complication of otitis media. It is characterized by elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure with normal CSF biochemistry and without any focal neurologic abnormality other than those related to the increased intracranial pressure. The pathophysiology of this rare condition is unknown. The incidence of intracranial complications was reduced dramatically with the introduction of newer antibiotics, but complicated cases still occur. Serious consequences can ensue if complications are not identified and treated properly. The author reviews the literature on otitic hydrocephalus and describes 2 new cases.

Amyloidosis of the external auditory canal

April 30, 2010     James J. Klemens, MD, Wendy Recant, MD, Joseph M. Baron, MD, and Miriam I. Saadia-Redleaf, MD
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Abstract

We present a case of bilateral otitis externa that did not respond to local treatment. Cutaneous biopsies revealed bilateral amyloid depositions secondary to multiple myeloma. Persistent, identical bilateral canal lesions may be the only manifestation of treatable systemic disease and should be biopsied, even though their bilaterality argues against malignancy.

Necrotizing otitis externa: A new trend? Report of 6 atypical cases

December 1, 2009     Fergal Glynn, MRCSI and Rory McConn Walsh, MD, FRCS (ORL-HNS)
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Abstract

Necrotizing otitis externa (OE) is traditionally seen in elderly diabetics and immunocompromised patients. During a 7-year period at our institution, we treated 6 patients with necrotizing OE who were not diabetic, who were not immunocompromised, and who were relatively young (age range: 27 to 65 yr; mean: 42.8). The necrotizing OE in these patients was less aggressive but just as severe as its usual presentation in older diabetic or immunocompromised patients. All 6 patients had evidence of bony erosion on computed tomography of the temporal bones, although 4 had negative findings on technetium-99m scintigraphy. Four of the 6 patients required mastoid exploration and fascia lata grafting, and the other 2 chose to undergo extensive daily microdebridements and intravenous antibiotics followed by 6 weeks of oral antibiotics. We recommend that a diagnosis of necrotizing OE be kept in mind when evaluating any patient who presents with severe otalgia, particularly in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the external auditory canal, edema, granulation tissue, and bony erosion.

Review of inactive ingredients in antibiotic ear drops

December 1, 2009     G. Michael Wall, PhD, Onkar Singh, PhD, Leslie Lemke, PhD, DABT, and Peter Roland, MD
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Abstract

The authors review the relevant chemical and biological characteristics of inactive ingredients in antibiotic ear drop drug products. Although many of the older aminoglycoside-containing otic products are still used today, only some fluoroquinolone-containing ear drops, approved in the last decade, have been proven safe and effective according to current rigorous scientific standards, including ototoxicity testing of the formulations. Preservatives, antioxidants, surfactants, buffers, suspending and emulsifying agents, osmotic agents, viscosity modifiers, solvents, and penetration enhancers are reviewed with regard to their functional role in formulations, as well as their potential for ototoxicity.

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