Infection

Huge middle ear adenoma with delayed facial nerve paralysis

June 4, 2012     Seung Ho Lee, MD; Hoseok Choi, MD, PhD; Young Chae Chu, MD; Young Hyo Kim, MD; Kyu-Sung Kim, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Middle ear adenoma is a rare disease that arises from the mucosa of the middle ear. Only a few cases of associated facial nerve paralysis have been reported. Facial nerve involvement is most likely related to nerve compression rather than tumor invasion of the nerve. We describe a case of a huge middle ear adenoma in a 63-year-old man. He presented with a 1-month history of right-sided otalgia, otorrhea, and facial palsy; he also had a 10-year history of right-sided hearing loss. A tympanomastoidectomy was performed. Intraoperatively, the tumor was found to fill the middle ear cavity as well as the entire diameter of the external auditory canal. The tumor had eroded the wall of the facial canal at the second genu, and it was tightly adherent to the epineurium. Focal inflammation around the tumor was observed at the exposed facial nerve. The tumor was removed and the facial nerve was decompressed. Immediately after surgery, the patient’s aural symptoms resolved. The final pathology evaluation established the diagnosis of a middle ear adenoma. At the 3-year follow-up, the ear cavity was completely healed and facial nerve function was improved.

Streptococcus milleri head and neck abscesses: A case series

June 4, 2012     Christopher Robert Foxton, MA(Oxon); Smariti Kapila, MBBS; Justin Kong, MBBS; Neil John Thomson, FRACS
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Abstract

Streptococcus milleri infections and abscesses in the head and neck region have been previously reported, but there is still a dearth of clinical literature on this topic. To add to the available reports and to promote a better understanding and awareness of this clinically important entity, we present this retrospective review of 7 cases of head and neck abscess caused by S milleri infection. We have placed particular emphasis on antibiotic sensitivity patterns. These patients—6 men and 1 woman, aged 28 to 73 years (mean: 42.7)—had been seen at a district general hospital in Gosford, Australia, over a 6-month period. All patients had undergone surgical intervention and had been treated with intravenous antibiotics. All the S millericultures were sensitive to penicillin G, cephalexin, and erythromycin. Six of these patients experienced a resolution of their abscess, while 1 patient died from overwhelming sepsis. We believe that the initiation of penicillin G, cephalexin, or erythromycin is a good starting point for empiric therapy. S milleri should be considered as a causative organism in a patient who presents with a head and neck abscess, especially in the presence of a dental infection. Such a patient should be monitored closely for airway obstruction and distal infective sequelae. Also in this article, we compare our findings with those reported in two other published series.

Mycobacterial tuberculosis superimposed on a Warthin tumor

April 30, 2012     Kang-Chao Wu, MD; Bo-Nien Chen, MD
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Abstract

The concomitant occurrence of tuberculosis infection within a Warthin tumor is extremely rare, as only 6 cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature. We report a new case in a 92-year-old man, who presented with a 20-year history of a painless swelling in the right infra-auricular area that had recently become painful and larger. The patient had no history of tuberculosis, weight loss, or chronic cough. The fluctuant mass was aspirated, but histopathology and routine culture were negative. Computed tomography identified a 5-cm, heterogeneous, enhancing mass with multiple, variably sized, low-density areas without surrounding edema in the area of the right parotid gland. Complete excision was performed to relieve the patient's symptoms. Histopathology diagnosed an acid-fast bacillus infection within a Warthin tumor. On polymerase chain reaction testing, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was negative for tuberculosis, but subsequent culture identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Initially, the patient refused antituberculosis therapy, but he relented when miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed 11 weeks postoperatively.

Otomycosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: Comparative study and literature review

March 1, 2012     Borlingegowda Viswanatha, MS, DLO, Dadarao Sumatha, MBBS, and Maliyappanahalli Siddappa Vijayashree, MBBS, MS
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Abstract

A comparative clinical study was carried out that included 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompetent patients and 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation, predisposing factors, mycologic profile, and treatment outcomes were compared. Aspergillus spp were the most commonly isolated fungi in the immunocompetent group, and Candida albicans in the immunocompromised group. Bilateral involvement was more common in the immunocompromised group. All the patients were treated with topical clotrimazole ear drops. Four patients in the immunocompromised group did not respond to treatment with clotrimazole but were treated successfully with fluconazole ear drops. Three patients had a small tympanic membrane perforation due to otomycosis.

The association between Helicobacter pylori and laryngopharyngeal reflux in laryngeal pathologies

March 1, 2012     Engin Çekin, MD, Mustafa Ozyurt, PhD, Evren Erkul, MD, Koray Ergunay, MD, Hakan Cincik, MD, Burak Kapucu, MD, and Atila Gungor, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a study to determine the presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in 43 previously untreated patients who had presented with a laryngeal lesion. Our aim was to determine if there was any association among H pylori, LPR, and laryngeal lesions. H pylori status was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of biopsy tissue obtained during direct laryngoscopy. The presence or absence of LPR was determined on the basis of patients' reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS), which were based on their questionnaire responses and findings on endoscopic examination of the larynx, respectively. Patients with an RSI of 14 or more and/or an RFS of 8 or more were considered to have LPR. H pylori was present in 24 patients (55.8%) and absent in 19 (44.2%)-not a statistically significant difference. The prevalence of LPR was higher than the prevalence of H pylori; it was present in 30 patients (69.8%) and absent in 13 (30.2%). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01). We found no association between H pylori status and LPR status. Additionally, we analyzed two subgroups based on whether their lesions were benign or malignant/premalignant and found a significant relationship between LPR positivity and the presence of malignant/premalignant laryngeal lesions (p = 0.03). We found no association between H pylori status and either of the two subgroup categories.

Acquired toxoplasmosis of the buccal area with extranodular involvement: Report of an unusual case

December 1, 2009     Serap Köybasi, MD, Ahmet Emre Süslü,w, MD, Beyhan Yigit, MD, and Cetin Boran, MD
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Abstract

Acquired toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in humans. It can be caused by ingestion of infected meat or other food that has been contaminated by the feces of infected cats. Approximately 90% of immunocompetent patients with acquired toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic and undiagnosed; in the other 10%, toxoplasmosis manifests as a nonspecific, self-limited illness that usually does not require treatment. In symptomatic cases, cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most common clinical findings. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who experienced unilateral facial swelling secondary to toxoplasmosis. In addition to the atypical location of her disease (i.e., the buccal area), the atypical histopathologic findings in this case (e.g., extranodular involvement) constituted a very unusual presentation of toxoplasmosis.

Mylohyoid cysticercosis: A rare submandibular mass

October 31, 2009     Ramandeep Singh Virk, MS, Naresh Panda, MS, DNB, FRCS, and Shakuntala Ghosh, MS
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Abstract

Cysticercosis is endemic in developing countries such as India. This infection is acquired via ingestion of cysticerci, the larvae of the Taenia solium (tapeworm, or cestode), in uncooked/undercooked pork or fecally contaminated food or water. Although skeletal muscle commonly harbors the cysticerci, we report a case in which they had infested the mylohyoid muscle in the floor of mouth, a site that has not been mentioned previously in the literature.

Primary sinonasal tuberculosis in a Nigerian woman presenting with epistaxis and proptosis: A case report

August 31, 2009     B. Sulyman Alabi, FWACS, Enoch A.O. Afolayan, FMCPath, A. Abdulakeem Aluko, FWACS, O. Abdulraman Afolabi, MBBS, and F. Grace Adepoju, FWACS
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Abstract

Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death worldwide after human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS and is especially prevalent in developing countries. We report a case of primary sinonasal tuberculosis without pulmonary involvement, which is rare, in a 27-year old female Nigerian fish farmer. She had a 3-year history of right-eye proptosis, bilateral nasal masses, and epistaxis. Cranial computed tomography suggested an extensive sinonaso-orbital neoplastic lesion. We performed a right external frontoethmoidectomy. Histologically, the excised nasal polyps revealed tuberculosis. Six months of antituberculosis therapy provided satisfactory improvement. Sinonasal tuberculosis, despite its rarity, should be added to the differential diagnosis of nasal and paranasal sinus disorders, and histologic evaluation remains the hallmark of diagnosis. Therapy with a short-duration, multidrug combination, rather than the longer-duration treatment regimen hitherto used, could be quite valuable, especially in the setting of a developing country with poor patient compliance.

Fungal laryngitis

July 31, 2009     Swapna K. Chandran, MD, Karen M. Lyons, MD, Venu Divi, MD, Matthew Geyer, NRCMA, and Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA
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Dacryocystitis secondary to an iatrogenic foreign body in the lacrimal apparatus

June 30, 2009     Deepak Gupta, MS, FRCS, Heikki B. Whittet, FRCS, Salil Sood, MS, MRCS, and Suchir Maitra, MS
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Abstract

Dacryocystitis is an infection of the lacrimal sac that is usually caused by obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. We describe a case of iatrogenic dacryocystitis that occurred secondary to the presence of an impacted piece of a metallic dilator in the lacrimal apparatus. The foreign body was detected on dacryocystography and removed during dacryocystorhinostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully.

Infratemporal fossa abscess: A diagnostic dilemma

April 30, 2009     M. Panduranga Kamath, MS, Kiran M. Bhojwani, MS, Ajit Mahale, MD, Hari Meyyappan, MBBS, and Kumar Abhijit, MBBS
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Abstract

An abscess in the infratemporal fossa is a rare complication of dental extraction. Although it is a recognized entity, only a handful of cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a case of abscess in the infratemporal fossa of a 55-year-old woman with noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes who presented with left-sided facial pain and marked trismus. The abscess was managed successfully with external drainage. We have made an attempt to comprehensively review the literature on this rare condition, with special emphasis on its anatomic complexity and varied clinical presentation, and we provide a detailed discussion of the diagnosis and management of this condition.

Viral supraglottitis in an adult

February 1, 2009     Ali Lotfizadeh, MD and Dinesh K. Chhetri, MD
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