Infection

Necrotizing cervical fasciitis: Prognosis based on a new grading system

March 24, 2013     Jagdeep Singh Thakur, MS; Neeti Verma, MS; Anamika Thakur, MD; Dev Raj Sharma, MS; Narinder Kumar Mohindroo, MS, DORL
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Abstract

We conducted a 10-year retrospective study to determine the prognosis of necrotizing cervical fasciitis (NCF). Our study population included 38 patients-32 males and 6 females, aged 10 months to 70 years (mean: 55 yr)-who had presented for management of NCF at our tertiary care hospital between Jan. 1, 2000, and Dec. 31, 2009. We classified each case into four categories based on the duration of disease prior to presentation, the severity of disease, and other factors that influence outcomes. We found that the most important factor in determining prognosis was the time interval between the onset of NCF and subsequent presentation for specialist or surgical intervention. Patients with a higher grade of NCF had longer hospital stays. Although aggressive surgical and medical intervention is the gold standard for the management of NCF, many of our patients presented with a relatively healthy appearing wound, which could mislead the evaluating clinician and delay prompt management. We believe that our new grading system will help obviate this problem and make clinicians more vigilant when faced with a new case of necrotizing fasciitis.

Does tonsillectomy affect the outcome of drug treatment for the eradication of gastric H pylori infection? A pilot study

March 24, 2013     Ozan Seymen Sezen, MD; Utku Kubilay, MD; Yusuf Erzin, MD; Murat Tuncer, MD; Seref Unver, MD
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Abstract

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with diverse gastroduodenal pathologies of varying severity, is sometimes challenging. We conducted a prospective study to determine the effect of tonsillectomy on the eradication of H pylori from the gastrointestinal tract. Our study population was made up of 46 patients-32 females and 14 males, aged 14 to 58 years (mean: 28.84 ± 9.65)-who had chronic tonsillitis and concomitant dyspepsia. An initial gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens for histology and a rapid urease test. These gastroscopies revealed that 32 patients were H pylori-positive (69.6%) and 14 were H pylori-negative (30.4%); these groups were designated A and B, respectively. The 32 H pylori-positive patients were divided into three subgroups based on the sequence in which they underwent drug therapy and tonsillectomy. All 3 subgroups received the same 14-day combination-drug regimen for eradication of gastric H pylori. The patients in group A1 (n = 12) underwent tonsillectomy prior to receiving drug treatment; 2 months after the cessation of drug therapy, they underwent a second gastroscopy. The patients in group A2 (n = 10) received drug treatment first followed by tonsillectomy; 2 months later, they underwent their second gastroscopy. The patients in group A3 (n = 10) received drug treatment first, then they underwent a second gastroscopy, and then they were taken for tonsillectomy. The success or failure of H pylori eradication was determined by the second gastroscopy. Also, analyses were performed after tonsillectomy to look for H pylori infection in tonsillar specimens. Eradication of gastric H pylori was achieved in 9 of the 12 group A1 patients (75.0%), 8 of the 10 group A2 patients (80.0%), and 7 of the 10 group A3 patients (70.0%); there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Likewise, there were no significant differences between any subgroups or combination of subgroups in terms of tonsillar positivity. As far as we know, this is the first study to investigate the effect of tonsillectomy on the outcome of H pylori eradication treatment. In light of our findings, we may speculate that tonsillar tissue does not seem to be a reservoir for H pylori infection. Although tonsillectomy had no significant effect on gastric H pylori eradication in our study, our results might have been skewed by the relatively small size of our sample.

Recurrent post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea secondary to aerobic endospore-forming bacilli: A case report and brief literature review

February 25, 2013     James J. Jaber, MD, PhD; Matthew L. Kircher, MD; Eric Thorpe, MD; Ryan G. Porter Sr., MD; John P. Leonetti, MD; Sam J. Marzo, MD
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Abstract

We report a unique case in which a 57-year-old man with an 8-year history of late recurrent post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) was found to harbor Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic endospore-forming bacillus that is typically resistant to chemical and physical agents because of its unique life cycle. Removal of the patient's tympanostomy tube resulted in complete resolution of his long-standing otorrhea. We also review the etiologies of and treatment strategies for early, late, chronic, and recurrent PTTO. We conclude that regardless of the etiology, a patient with persistent or recurrent PTTO should consider undergoing removal of the ventilation tube.

Hyperplastic epiglottis caused by chronic inflammation

January 24, 2013     Mark D. Wilkie, MBChB; Samuel C. Leong, MPhil; Alessandro Panarese, FRCS; Arnab Banerjee, FRCS
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Due to the development of Hib vaccines, the epidemiology of epiglottitis has shifted dramatically back toward adult presentations, with a marked decline in the incidence among children.

Chromobacterium violaceum necrotizing fasciitis: A case report and review of the literature

October 31, 2012     Jonathan K. Seigel, MD; Michael E. Stadler, MD; Jennifer L. Lombrano, DDS; Jeffrey S. Almony, MD, DDS; Marion E. Couch, MD, PhD; and Thomas H. Belhorn, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe, rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue that causes significant destruction. It is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Chromobacterium violaceum necrotizing fasciitis and subsequently found to have autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease.

Middle ear atelectasis

October 31, 2012     Min-Tsan Shu, MD; Kang-Chao Wu, MD; Yu-Chun Chen, MD
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Tympanic membrane retraction caused by long-term eustachian tube dysfunction may lead to erosion of the ossicles and cholesteatoma.

Otogenic pneumocephalus as a complication of multiple myeloma

September 7, 2012     Melissa J. Maguire, MD; Uma Nath, MD; Guiseppe E. Bignardi, MD
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Abstract

We report a case of otogenic pneumocephalus in an 80-year-old woman with multiple myeloma. The pneumocephalus was associated with Haemophilus influenzae otitis media and reactive meningitis in the absence of an intracranial brain abscess. Myeloma causes thinning of bone trabeculae and destructive lytic bone lesions. This can predispose to a risk of pathologic fractures and, in patients with skull vault involvement, to the rare complication of pneumocephalus. Therefore, pneumocephalus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute headache in patients with multiple myeloma, especially those with skull vault involvement. Prompt computed tomography and liaison between the otolaryngology and neurology teams may assist in making an early diagnosis and preventing life-threatening intracranial complications.

Endoscopic view of secretion transport in the maxillary sinus following a long-term inferior meatal antrostomy

August 10, 2012     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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It is important to remove any obstruction of the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus or the ethmoid infundibulum because maxillary sinus secretions will be transported toward the natural ostium even when a previously placed large and patent inferior meatal antrostomy is present.

Staphylococcus aureus cavernous sinus thrombosis mimicking complicated fungal sinusitis

July 5, 2012     Murat Songu, MD; Nazan Can, MD; Kazim Onal, MD; Secil Arslanoglu, MD; Nezahat Erdogan, MD; Aylin Kopar, MD; Ejder Ciger, MD
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Abstract

Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of infections involving the paranasal sinuses or the middle one-third of the face. We report a challenging case of cavernous sinus thrombosis to familiarize otolaryngologists with its clinical features, diagnosis, and management. The patient was a 45-year-old diabetic woman whose signs and symptoms mimicked those of complicated fungal sinusitis. She presentedwith fever, nausea without vomiting, frontal headache, bilateral ptosis and swelling, double vision, a partial loss of visual acuity in the left eye, and restricted lateral ocular movements. Her Snellen visual acuity had been reduced to 8/10 on the right and 6/10 on the left. Radiologic investigation revealed cavernous sinus extension of sphenoid sinusitis and a fungus-ball appearance in the sphenoid sinus. On the second day of her admission, the patient’s vision was further reduced to 6/10 on the right and 2/10 on the left. She then underwent urgent bilateral anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoidectomy. At postoperative follow-up, her vision had stabilized at 10/10 bilaterally. At 2 months after discharge, she exhibited no evidence of abducens nerve palsy, and her ocular function had returned to normal. The diagnosis of cavernous sinus thrombosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by imaging. The favorable outcome in our case was attributable to early diagnosis, prompt initiation of appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy, and surgical drainage by the skillful surgical team.

Acute candidal pharyngolaryngitis

July 5, 2012     Andrew Mallon, DO; Rima A. DeFatta, MD; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS
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Use of inhaled steroids has been identified as a risk factor for the development of laryngeal candidiasis. Therefore, if dysphonia, cough, and general laryngeal irritation occur in a patient using inhaled steroids, the possibility of laryngeal candidiasis should be considered.

Mycoplasma an unlikely cause of bullous myringitis

June 4, 2012     Lisa Cramer, BA; Dina M. Emara, MBBCh; Arun K. Gadre, MD, FACS
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Despite common belief, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an extremely rare causative agent for bullous myringitis. Instead, it is caused by the same organisms responsible for acute otitis media.

A case of a giant submandibular gland calculus perforating the floor of the mouth

June 4, 2012     Raffaele Rauso, MD; Giulio Gherardini, MD, PhD; Paolo Biondi, MD; Gianpaolo Tartaro, MD; Giuseppe Colella, MD, DDS
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Abstract

Sialolithiasis is characterized by the obstruction of salivary gland secretion by a calculus. It is associated with swelling, pain, and infection of the affected gland. More than 80% of all salivary calculi occur in the submandibular gland. One reason for this is the makeup of the saliva in the submandibular gland, which includes a higher mucus content, a greater degree of alkalinity, and greater concentrations of calcium and phosphate salts compared with the saliva of the parotid and sublingual glands. Other factors are that its duct is longer and its saliva flows against gravity. Sialoliths that reach several centimeters in diameter (megaliths, or giant calculi) are rare. Perforation of the floor of the mouth by a giant calculus is extremely rare. We report such a case in a 56-year-old man who presented with a 2-day history of severe pain in the left sublingual area and painful swelling in the left submandibular area. Removal of the stone and the left submandibular gland was performed via an extraoral incision. On gross examination, the sialolith measured 5.6 cm.

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