Fistula

Cochlear fistula in a noncholesteatomatous ear

September 17, 2014     Yoav Hahn, MD; Dennis I. Bojrab, MD
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Abstract

Bony destruction of the labyrinth is usually associated with long-standing cholesteatomatous otitis media. The promontory is not a common site for bone resorption because (1) it is not an area that is involved in accumulation of cholesteatoma perimatrix substances, (2) it is the densest bone of the human body, and (3) pressure necrosis from overlying tissue is uncommon. We report a case of cochlear erosion associated with noncholesteatomatous middle ear disease. As far as we know, this is only the second such case reported in the literature. We also review decision-making factors and techniques for the safe management of this condition.

Using a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap to prevent postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy: A study of 88 cases

August 27, 2014     Masoud Naghibzadeh, MD; Ramin Zojaji, MD; Nematollah Mokhtari Amir Majdi, MD; Morteza Mazloum Farsi Baf, MD
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Abstract

Complications of total laryngectomy can have serious implications for the final outcome of treatment, including pharyngocutaneous fistula. We conducted a retrospective study of surgical techniques to determine how to best prevent or decrease the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula following total laryngectomy. We reviewed the hospital records of all patients who had undergone total laryngectomy for laryngeal carcinoma at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, from March 1989 through February 2005. We identified 88 such patients-80 men and 8 women. We divided this cohort into two groups according to the type of pharyngeal defect closure they received. A total of 37 patients-31 men and 6 women (mean age: 61.4 ± 5.9 yr) underwent primary closure along with a sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCMM) flap (flap group). The other 51 patients-49 men and 2 women (mean age: 61.3 ± 4.4 yr)-underwent standard primary closure without creation of an SCMM flap (nonflap group). Overall, postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula occurred in 9 of the 88 patients (10.2%)-1 case in the flap group (2.7%) and 8 cases in the nonflap group (15.7%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 0.612, 95% confidence interval = 0.451 to 0.832), independent of other factors. We found no correlation between fistula development and age (p = 0.073), sex (p = 0.065), or tumor location (p = 0.435). Likewise, we found no correlation between tumor location and either sex (p = 0.140) or age (p = 0.241). We conclude that including an SCMM flap in the surgical process would significantly decrease the development of fistula, regardless of age, sex, and tumor site.

Transdermal scopolamine in the management of postparotidectomy salivary fistula

October 23, 2013     Andrea Gallo, MD, PhD; Valentina Manciocco, MD, PhD; Giulio Pagliuca, MD, PhD; Salvatore Martellucci, MD; Marco de Vincentiis, MD
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Abstract

Parotid fistula represents an uncommon complication in parotid surgery. Its early recognition contributes to successful management. The condition is distressing for both the patient and the surgeon, since conservative and operative treatment frequently fail. There is no consensus on the optimal management of parotid gland fistula. The aim of this study is to describe a new, simple procedure in the treatment of this condition using transdermal scopolamine. We report 3 cases of salivary fistulae occurring after parotidectomy. The patients were admitted to our department with swelling in the parotid region and an output of clear drainage from the drain site during oral intake. The patients were treated with a scopolamine transdermal release system applied to hairless skin overlying the parotid region. A prompt and remarkable decrease in daily salivary output was observed. Fistulae healed completely within 3 days. No collateral effects were observed. Parotid fistulae do not generally occur as a complication of parotidectomies. Their management can be difficult, and several methods of treatment have been attempted. We believe that the use of transdermal scopolamine is a valid option in the treatment of parotid fistulae without causing collateral effects.

Endoscopic closure of a frontocutaneous fistula

October 23, 2013     Alexandros Tsikoudas, DLO, FRCS(Otol), FRCS(ORL-HNS); Christos Georgalas, PhD, MRCS, FRCS(ORL-HNS)
article

Abstract

A frontocutaneous fistula is a rare sequela of frontal sinus pathology. Management via an endoscopic approach is not frequently reported in the literature. We describe such an approach with the aid of still photography and imaging plus videoendoscopy, and we discuss the current literature.

Coexisting first and bilateral second branchial fistulas in a child with nonfamilial branchio-otic syndrome

July 21, 2013     Jose Florencio F. Lapena Jr., MA, MD; Genilou Liv M. Jimena, MD
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Abstract

We describe what we believe is only the third reported case of coexisting first and bilateral second branchial fistulas associated with nonfamilial branchio-otic syndrome. The patient was a 6-year-old girl who presented with bilaterally draining anterior neck puncta, a preauricular sinus, and moderately severe bilateral hearing loss. She had no family history of branchial anomalies. Compared with branchial cysts and sinuses, branchial fistulas are rare. Even more rare are bilateral second branchial fistulas coexisting with first branchial anomalies, as only 10 cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature. Of these 10 cases, 5 were associated with either branchio-otic syndrome or branchio-oto-renal syndrome; 2 patients had familial branchio-otic syndrome, 2 had nonfamilial branchio-otic syndrome, and 1 had nonfamilial branchio-oto-renal syndrome.

Embryogenic cervico-thyro-piriform tract

October 4, 2012     J. Madana, MS, DNB; Deeke Yolmo, MS; Sunil Kumar Saxena, MS; S. Gopalakrishnan, MS
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Abstract

Branchial cleft fistulae are rare congenital anomalies that arise from the abnormal persistence of branchial remnants. Branchial arch anomalies are rare. They usually present as a lateral neck mass or abscess in the form of acute suppurative thyroiditis. A complete fistula of the third arch is extremely rare. We describe such a case in a 13-year-old girl who presented with a small opening in the left lower neck, from which a mucoid discharge had been present since birth. The fistula was accompanied by recurrent neck swelling. Computed tomography with contrast injection into the external skin opening revealed a continuous tract that extended to the base of the piriform sinus. Total excision of the tract up to the piriform sinus with a left hemithyroidectomy was performed. At follow-up 28 months postoperatively, the patient exhibited no evidence of recurrence.

Bilateral congenital lacrimal fistulae: A case report

April 30, 2012     Lei Zhuang, MD; Christin L. Sylvester, DO; Jeffrey P. Simons, MD
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Abstract

A congenital lacrimal fistula is a rare developmental anomaly, usually unilateral. While it is often asymptomatic, some patients present with epiphora or discharge. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy with bilateral lacrimal fistulae. No other systemic, nasal, or ocular anomalies were found. In the absence of significant symptoms, we decided on a course of observation. In this article, we discuss the embryologic basis of congenital lacrimal fistulae, as well as the typical presentation and possible treatment modalities. The presence of a lacrimal fistula is an indication to search for a variety of underlying systemic and ocular anomalies.

Recurrent meningitis in an adult secondary to an inner ear malformation: Imaging demonstration

March 31, 2012     Nisar Ahmad Wani, MD, Aijaz Rawa, MD, Umar Qureshi, MD, Tasleem Kosar, DMRD, and Irfan Robbani, MD
article

Abstract

Congenital labyrinthine dysplasia with a translabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula may be an anatomic cause for recurrent meningitis. This condition is usually seen in children aged 5 to 10 years who present with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and CSF discharge through the nose or ear, with or without recurrent meningitis. Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the petrous portion of the temporal bone can help to diagnose this abnormality. We report a case of translabyrinthine CSF fistula in an adult-a 30-year-old man-who presented with recurrent pneumococcal meningitis, a long history of a clear nasal discharge, and evidence of SNHL. MDCT and MRI of the temporal bone demonstrated a cystic-appearing cochleovestibular malformation (an incomplete partition type I) in the right inner ear. Imaging also showed an absence of the basal turn of the cochlea and the cribriform membrane at the lateral end of the right internal auditory canal, which was shorter and narrower than normal. Evidence of fluid in the right middle ear suggested a CSF fistula.

A case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland: Diagnosis and treatment

January 25, 2012     Fábio Roberto Pinto, MD, PhD
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Abstract

The author reports a case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland and describes its diagnosis and treatment. The patient was referred to the author's clinic for evaluation of a continuous serous discharge from a small orifice in the left cheek near the angle of the mouth. A left preauricular appendix was also noted. Fistulography detected an aberrant duct leading to an accessory parotid gland. The main parotid gland and its duct were normal. The anomalous duct was dissected in continuity with a small ellipse of skin and sutured to the buccal mucosa. The patient's recovery was uneventful. The author also discusses the embryologic origin of this rare anomaly.

Tracheoinnominate fistula: Successful management with endovascular stenting

July 13, 2011     Peter M. Shepard, MD, Jeffrey M. Phillips, MD, Girma Tefera, MD, and Gregory K. Hartig, MD
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Abstract

Tracheoinnominate fistula is a rare complication of tracheostomy that is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recently, endovascular stents have been described as a viable treatment option for the management of this condition. We report a case of tracheoinnominate fistula in a 40-year-old man that was successfully managed with endovascular stent placement. Our evaluation included bronchoscopy, arteriography, and computed tomographic angiography. Intraoperative localization of the fistula required selective catheterization of the innominate artery.

Traumatic perilymphatic fistula secondary to stapes luxation into the vestibule: A case report

April 30, 2011     Li-Ser Khoo, FRCR and Tiong-Yong Tan, FRCR
article

Abstract

A penetrating ear injury with a perilymphatic fistula is not an uncommon occurrence in otolaryngologic practice, but stapes luxation is rare. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who developed a traumatic perilymphatic fistula secondary to an atypical stapes luxation into the vestibule. After sustaining a penetrating injury to the right ear, the patient presented with otalgia, vertigo, vomiting, gait unsteadiness, and hearing loss. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone detected pneumolabyrinth, indicating a perilymphatic fistula. The stapes had pivoted on the footplate at the oval window, and then it made an unusual 180° flip and luxated deeply into the vestibule, with the capitulum stapedis pointing medially. Conservative management was chosen in view of the high surgical risks posed by the deeply luxated stapes and the likelihood of a fracture of the stapes footplate. This case illustrates the importance of an accurate diagnosis and interpretation of a traumatic perilymphatic fistula and stapes luxation as seen on HRCT of the temporal bone.

Report of a complete second branchial fistula

July 31, 2010     Mohammad Habibullah Khan, MRCSI, DOHNS, Heitham Gheriani, FRCSI, FRCSEd, and Aongus James Curran, MD, FRCSI
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Abstract

We report a case of complete congenital branchial fistula with an internal opening near the tonsillar fossa. Cysts, fistulas, and sinuses of the second branchial cleft are the most common developmental anomalies arising from the branchial apparatus. In our case, a 43-year-old man presented with a several-year history of a discharging sinus from the right side of his neck, consistent with a branchial fistula. He underwent various investigations and finally was treated with a one-stage complete surgical excision of the fistula tract. We describe the general clinical presentation, investigations, and surgical outcome of this case.

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