Epistaxis

Radiographic findings of a well-differentiated sinonasal neuroendocrine neoplasm: Case report and review of the literature

July 20, 2015     Cui Ping Mao, PhD; Ming Zhang, MD; Chen Niu, PhD; Min Li, MD; Yuan Wang, MD
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Abstract

Typical carcinoid is a rare tumor among other neuroendocrine neoplasms that occur in the nasal cavity. Only a few cases of typical carcinoids in the nasal cavity have been reported. We report a case of typical carcinoid of the nasal cavity in a 61-year-old man who had a history of persistent nasal obstruction and epistaxis for approximately 17 years. Computed tomography revealed a huge, lobulated mass in the nasal cavity with extension into the posterior sphenoid sinus. Extensive bone destruction could be seen in the neighboring sphenoid sinus. MR imaging suggested that the tumor was close to the dura. The final histologic evaluation of the excised biopsy specimen yielded a diagnosis of a well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm (typical carcinoid). In this article, the relevant reports in the literature are reviewed, and the role of radiographic findings on tumor diagnosis and on the establishment of a surgery plan is emphasized.

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma as a third primary neoplasm: A case report and review of the literature

April 27, 2015     John J. Chi, MD; Michael D. Feldman, MD; James N. Palmer, MD
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Abstract

A 71-year-old man with a history of a pituitary prolactinoma and metastatic pancreatic carcinoma presented with epistaxis, visual changes, bilateral ophthalmoplegia, involuntary closure of the left eye, and ptosis of the right eye. The patient was found to have a soft-tissue mass in the posterior nasal cavity with extension through the floor of the sella turcica, the sphenoid sinuses, cavernous sinuses, and suprasellar region. The patient was subsequently taken to the operating room. Intraoperative frozen section of the sinonasal mass demonstrated carcinoma. The final pathology of the mass revealed sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC)-the patient's second skull base lesion and third primary neoplasm. SNUC is a rare neoplasm of the sinonasal cavities that rapidly progresses from symptom onset to mortality in the presence of aggressive multidimensional therapies. Given its poor prognosis and possibly devastating treatments, an open discussion of treatment options between physicians and the patient is of the utmost importance. Although SNUC is rare, it is important that practicing otolaryngologists, neurosurgeons, and skull base surgeons be familiar with this disease process-especially when caring for patients with a history of a benign skull base neoplasm and concern for possible recurrence, as was the case in this report.

Pedunculated cavernous hemangioma originating in the olfactory cleft

September 17, 2014     Kaiming Su, MD, PhD; Weitian Zhang, MD, PhD; Haibo Shi, MD, PhD; Shankai Yin, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature.

Two cases of pyogenic granuloma in pregnancy

August 27, 2014     Alex Fernandez, MS; Jason Hamilton, MD, FACS; Raphael Nach, MD
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Management and treatment of rhinologic issues in pregnant patients can be complex because of the limited availability of safety data.

Nasal vestibule schwannoma: Report of a rare case

June 8, 2014     Ismail Fadzilah, MSurg(ORL-HNS); Husain Salina, MSurg(ORL-HNS); Baharudin Khairuzzana, MSurg(ORL-HNS); Omar Rahmat, MSurg(ORL-HNS); SHA Primuharsa Putra, MSurg(ORL-HNS)
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Abstract

Schwannomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are quite rare, especially in the nasal vestibule. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening right-sided epistaxis and nasal blockage. Rigid nasoendoscopy showed a mobile, smooth, globular mass occupying the right nasal vestibule. The mass arose from the lateral nasal wall and impinged on the anterior part of the middle turbinate posteriorly. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses showed a 3.8 x 1.7-cm enhancing mass in the right nostril. The mass obliterated the nasal cavity and caused mild deviation of the septum. The preoperative histopathologic examination showed positivity for vimentin and S-100 protein, suggesting a diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient underwent an intranasal laser-assisted excision biopsy. The histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and no recurrence was seen in the follow-up period.

Clinical management of a patient with advanced mucosal malignant melanoma in the sinonasal area

January 21, 2014     Marco Fusetti, MD; Alberto Eibenstein, MD; Ettore Lupi, MD; Enzo Iacomino, MD; Tiziana Pieramici, MD; Alessandra Fioretti, MD, PhD
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Abstract

We describe a case of mucosal malignant melanoma in the sinonasal area of a 65-year-old woman. She presented with a history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis with subsequent tenderness, facial anesthesia involving cranial nerve V2, red eye, proptosis, diplopia, and conjunctival chemosis. Computed tomography detected a nonspecific solid mass that had involved the left maxillary sinus and surrounding tissues, with extension into the nasal cavity and invasion of the orbital floor and eye muscles. Histopathologic examination of the neoplasm revealed that it was a malignant melanoma. We performed a radical hemimaxillectomy that extended to the orbit, which allowed for radical excision of the tumor. Postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Mucosal melanoma in the head and neck is a rare and highly malignant neoplasm. We suggest that malignant melanoma be suspected when a small-round-cell tumor is found on light microscopy, and we confirm the usefulness of immunohistochemical investigations.

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal tract: An unusual cause of epistaxis

June 11, 2013     Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, MD, MAMS, FICR; Niranjan Khandelwal, MD, DipNB, FICR; Vivek Virmani, MD, DipNB, FRCR; Ashim Das, MD; and Naresh Panda, MS
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Abstract

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare hematologic malignancy with nonspecific clinical symptoms and imaging findings. We present a case of this entity that arose in the nasal tract of a 50-year-old man. The tumor was removed surgically, and the patient showed no evidence of recurrence on follow-up. We review the clinical features, imaging and histopathologic findings, and treatment of this rare disease. It is essential for otolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons to be familiar with this entity because total excision and radiation therapy for plasmacytomas can be curative in patients who have no underlying overt plasma cell dyscrasias.

A case of glomangiopericytoma involving the orbital wall

April 17, 2013     Eun Sun Jung, MD, PhD; Suk-Woo Yang, MD, PhD; Ji-Hong Kim, MD; Soo Whan Kim, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Sinonasal type hemangiopericytomas are very rare tumors, and are often called glomangiopericytoma. They are believed to be derived from perivascular modified smooth muscle cells. Their origin is similar to glomus tumors but some distinct differences exist. Glomangiopericytomas are indolent tumors and overall survival rates are higher after complete surgical excision. Recurrence rates are as high as 30%. We present a case of glomangiopericytoma which involves the orbital wall, noteworthy because such bone-dissolving glomangiopericytomas are extremely rare.

Oncocytoma of the nasal cavity: A case report

March 24, 2013     Mark E. Fons, DO; David Poetker, MD; Paul E. Wakely Jr., MD
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Abstract

Oncocytomas arising in the nasal cavity are quite rare. These entities more commonly occur in the major salivary glands, minor salivary glands, respiratory seromucinous glands, and endocrine organs. Very few cases of oncocytoma in the nasal cavity have been reported, with only 5 diagnosed as malignant. This article describes a case involving an 81-year-old man with a nasal oncocytoma that was completely resected with an endoscopic medial maxillectomy. The diagnostic rationale is discussed, along with a review of the literature.

Endoscopic view of an "empty nose"

February 25, 2013     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
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The empty nose syndrome usually is defined by excessive loss of normal nasal tissue and loss of anatomic landmarks, which results in a widely patent airway with excessive crusting (ozena) and easy nasal bleeding and dryness of the nasal mucosa. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinus disease has diminished the possibility of the difficult empty nose.

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma with intracranial extension: Case report and literature review

December 31, 2012     Shafik N. Wassef, MD; Payal Kapur, MBBS, MD; Samuel L. Barnett, MD; Larry L. Myers, MD, FACS
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Abstract

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses that possesses the histopathologic features of both teratomas and carcinosarcomas. We report the case of a 58-year-old white man who presented with a 1-year history of a gradually enlarging left-sided nasal mass. The patient had previously undergone endoscopic sinus surgery at another facility, and the final pathologic specimen was reported as an SNTCS with positive margins. He was then referred to our institution, where he underwent a craniofacial resection combined with endoscopic intranasal resection. Postoperatively, he received combined chemotherapy and irradiation. At 48 months of follow-up, he was alive without evidence of disease.

Ectopic intranasal tooth: An unusual cause of epistaxis in a child

June 4, 2012     Roshan K. Verma, MS, DNB, MNAMS; Jaimanti Bakshi, MS, DNB; Naresh K. Panda, MS, MNAMS, FRCS
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Abstract

Nasal bleeding is a common disorder in children that is frequently caused by irritation in the Kiesselbach plexus (also known as Little’s area). Other common underlying causes include local inflammatory diseases of the nose, infections, vascular malformations, and trauma. We report here a rare case of an ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity as the cause of recurrent epistaxis in a 3.5-year-old child. The clinical presentation, investigations, and management are discussed.

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