Epistaxis

Pedunculated cavernous hemangioma originating in the olfactory cleft

September 17, 2014     Kaiming Su, MD, PhD; Weitian Zhang, MD, PhD; Haibo Shi, MD, PhD; Shankai Yin, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature.

Two cases of pyogenic granuloma in pregnancy

August 27, 2014     Alex Fernandez, MS; Jason Hamilton, MD, FACS; Raphael Nach, MD
article

Management and treatment of rhinologic issues in pregnant patients can be complex because of the limited availability of safety data.

Nasal vestibule schwannoma: Report of a rare case

June 8, 2014     Ismail Fadzilah, MSurg(ORL-HNS); Husain Salina, MSurg(ORL-HNS); Baharudin Khairuzzana, MSurg(ORL-HNS); Omar Rahmat, MSurg(ORL-HNS); SHA Primuharsa Putra, MSurg(ORL-HNS)
article

Abstract

Schwannomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are quite rare, especially in the nasal vestibule. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening right-sided epistaxis and nasal blockage. Rigid nasoendoscopy showed a mobile, smooth, globular mass occupying the right nasal vestibule. The mass arose from the lateral nasal wall and impinged on the anterior part of the middle turbinate posteriorly. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses showed a 3.8 x 1.7-cm enhancing mass in the right nostril. The mass obliterated the nasal cavity and caused mild deviation of the septum. The preoperative histopathologic examination showed positivity for vimentin and S-100 protein, suggesting a diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient underwent an intranasal laser-assisted excision biopsy. The histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and no recurrence was seen in the follow-up period.

Clinical management of a patient with advanced mucosal malignant melanoma in the sinonasal area

January 21, 2014     Marco Fusetti, MD; Alberto Eibenstein, MD; Ettore Lupi, MD; Enzo Iacomino, MD; Tiziana Pieramici, MD; Alessandra Fioretti, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

We describe a case of mucosal malignant melanoma in the sinonasal area of a 65-year-old woman. She presented with a history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis with subsequent tenderness, facial anesthesia involving cranial nerve V2, red eye, proptosis, diplopia, and conjunctival chemosis. Computed tomography detected a nonspecific solid mass that had involved the left maxillary sinus and surrounding tissues, with extension into the nasal cavity and invasion of the orbital floor and eye muscles. Histopathologic examination of the neoplasm revealed that it was a malignant melanoma. We performed a radical hemimaxillectomy that extended to the orbit, which allowed for radical excision of the tumor. Postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Mucosal melanoma in the head and neck is a rare and highly malignant neoplasm. We suggest that malignant melanoma be suspected when a small-round-cell tumor is found on light microscopy, and we confirm the usefulness of immunohistochemical investigations.

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal tract: An unusual cause of epistaxis

June 11, 2013     Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, MD, MAMS, FICR; Niranjan Khandelwal, MD, DipNB, FICR; Vivek Virmani, MD, DipNB, FRCR; Ashim Das, MD; and Naresh Panda, MS
article

Abstract

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare hematologic malignancy with nonspecific clinical symptoms and imaging findings. We present a case of this entity that arose in the nasal tract of a 50-year-old man. The tumor was removed surgically, and the patient showed no evidence of recurrence on follow-up. We review the clinical features, imaging and histopathologic findings, and treatment of this rare disease. It is essential for otolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons to be familiar with this entity because total excision and radiation therapy for plasmacytomas can be curative in patients who have no underlying overt plasma cell dyscrasias.

A case of glomangiopericytoma involving the orbital wall

April 17, 2013     Eun Sun Jung, MD, PhD; Suk-Woo Yang, MD, PhD; Ji-Hong Kim, MD; Soo Whan Kim, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

Sinonasal type hemangiopericytomas are very rare tumors, and are often called glomangiopericytoma. They are believed to be derived from perivascular modified smooth muscle cells. Their origin is similar to glomus tumors but some distinct differences exist. Glomangiopericytomas are indolent tumors and overall survival rates are higher after complete surgical excision. Recurrence rates are as high as 30%. We present a case of glomangiopericytoma which involves the orbital wall, noteworthy because such bone-dissolving glomangiopericytomas are extremely rare.

Oncocytoma of the nasal cavity: A case report

March 24, 2013     Mark E. Fons, DO; David Poetker, MD; Paul E. Wakely Jr., MD
article

Abstract

Oncocytomas arising in the nasal cavity are quite rare. These entities more commonly occur in the major salivary glands, minor salivary glands, respiratory seromucinous glands, and endocrine organs. Very few cases of oncocytoma in the nasal cavity have been reported, with only 5 diagnosed as malignant. This article describes a case involving an 81-year-old man with a nasal oncocytoma that was completely resected with an endoscopic medial maxillectomy. The diagnostic rationale is discussed, along with a review of the literature.

Endoscopic view of an "empty nose"

February 25, 2013     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS
article

The empty nose syndrome usually is defined by excessive loss of normal nasal tissue and loss of anatomic landmarks, which results in a widely patent airway with excessive crusting (ozena) and easy nasal bleeding and dryness of the nasal mucosa. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinus disease has diminished the possibility of the difficult empty nose.

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma with intracranial extension: Case report and literature review

December 31, 2012     Shafik N. Wassef, MD; Payal Kapur, MBBS, MD; Samuel L. Barnett, MD; Larry L. Myers, MD, FACS
article

Abstract

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses that possesses the histopathologic features of both teratomas and carcinosarcomas. We report the case of a 58-year-old white man who presented with a 1-year history of a gradually enlarging left-sided nasal mass. The patient had previously undergone endoscopic sinus surgery at another facility, and the final pathologic specimen was reported as an SNTCS with positive margins. He was then referred to our institution, where he underwent a craniofacial resection combined with endoscopic intranasal resection. Postoperatively, he received combined chemotherapy and irradiation. At 48 months of follow-up, he was alive without evidence of disease.

Ectopic intranasal tooth: An unusual cause of epistaxis in a child

June 4, 2012     Roshan K. Verma, MS, DNB, MNAMS; Jaimanti Bakshi, MS, DNB; Naresh K. Panda, MS, MNAMS, FRCS
article

Abstract

Nasal bleeding is a common disorder in children that is frequently caused by irritation in the Kiesselbach plexus (also known as Little’s area). Other common underlying causes include local inflammatory diseases of the nose, infections, vascular malformations, and trauma. We report here a rare case of an ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity as the cause of recurrent epistaxis in a 3.5-year-old child. The clinical presentation, investigations, and management are discussed.

Outcomes of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for epistaxis: A five-year series from a single institution

February 18, 2012     David J. Howe, FRCS ORL-HNS, SpR ENT; Umar Wazir, MBBS, MRCS, MSc; Derek W. Skinner, FRCS Eng(Otol)
article

Abstract

Epistaxis is a common emergency seen by the otolaryngologist. A minority of cases require surgical intervention. Multiple surgical procedures have been tried in the past, including endoscopic ligation of the sphenopalatine artery (ELSPA), which is considered an effective surgical modality in the management of epistaxis. This study examines the outcome of 33 ELSPA procedures over a 5-year period. Three of 4 cases that were not controlled with ELSPA were successfully managed with subsequent anterior ethmoidal ligation. Failed ELSPA procedures may represent an incorrect choice of procedure rather than a failure of the procedure. High-resolution computed tomography can identify the position of the anterior ethmoidal artery; it may be possible to infer vulnerability to hemorrhage from this artery and hence target procedure selection.

Sphenopalatine artery pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic sinus surgery: A case report and literature review

February 18, 2012     Raewyn G. Campbell, BMed(Hons), BApplSci(Physio)
article

Abstract

Previously reported cases of iatrogenic sphenopalatine artery (SPA) pseudoaneurysm have occurred only after trans-sphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors or maxillofacial surgery. In this article, the author presents what to the best of her knowledge is the first reported case of an SPA pseudoaneurysm that developed following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The patient was a 76-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome who presented with a 6-month history of unilateral sinus symptoms. She underwent septoplasty and unilateral ESS, which included frontal recess clearance and sphenoidotomy. However, during surgery, severe generalized bleeding was encountered. The bleeding was arrested only after anterior and posterior nasal packing. After two attempts to remove the packing failed, angiography was obtained. It revealed an SPA pseudoaneurysm, which was immediately and successfully embolized. SPA pseudoaneurysm is a rare but significant complication of ESS, and it should be considered in patients with posterior epistaxis after ESS or prolonged posterior nasal packing. The pathogenesis may include intraoperative trauma, infection, pressure necrosis from packing, or a combination of these factors. Optimal management includes either ligation or embolization, depending on anatomic, patient, staff, and resource factors. The author reviews the pertinent anatomy and the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention of this rare complication.

Page
of 3Next