Anomaly

Relief from cluster headaches following extraction of an ipsilateral infected tooth

June 11, 2013     Matthew R. Hoffman, PhD; and Timothy M. McCulloch, MD
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Abstract

A 60-year-old man with a 7-year history of cluster headaches was seen by an oral surgeon for evaluation of pain in the left upper second molar ipsilateral to the side affected by the headaches. During extraction of the tooth, infection, decay, and inflammation were discovered. Since the extraction in November 2008, the patient has experienced one episode of cluster headaches as of April 2013.

Internal carotid artery in zone IIb and its implications: A case report

March 24, 2013     Drew P. Plonk, MD; J. Dale Browne, MD, FACS
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Abstract

The potential for aberrant anatomy in the neck should be respected in order to avoid unexpected and potentially devastating injury during surgical and other procedures. Anatomic variations involving the internal carotid artery are believed to exist in as much as 6% of the population. We describe a case of a tortuous internal carotid artery that was found in zone IIb during a neck dissection in a 60-year-old man, and we discuss the implications of this anomaly.

Anterior jugular phlebectasia and tinnitus: A case report

March 24, 2013     Roshan Kumar Verma, MS, DNB, MNAMS; Rahul Modi, MS; Naresh K. Panda, MS, DNB, FRCS
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Abstract

Abnormal dilation of a normal anterior jugular vein is a rare anomaly and usually presents as a neck lump. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of such a case in which the patient presented with severe tinnitus. Excision of the dilated portion of the anterior jugular vein in our patient alleviated the severe tinnitus.

Intranasal tooth and associated rhinolith in a patient with cleft lip and palate

March 24, 2013     Gisele da Silva Dalben, DDS, MSc; Vivian Patricia S. Vargas, DDS; Bruno A. Barbosa, MSc; Marcia R. Gomide, PhD; Alberto Consolaro, PhD
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Abstract

We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with a complaint of a malodorous bloody discharge from the left naris. The patient had previously undergone a complete repair of left-sided cleft lip and palate. Clinical examination revealed hyperplasia of the nasal mucosa on the left side. X-ray examination of the nasal cavity demonstrated a radiopaque structure that resembled a tooth and a radiopaque mass similar to an odontoma that was adherent to the root of the suspected tooth. With the patient under general anesthesia, the structure was removed. On gross inspection, the structure was identified as a tooth with a rhinolith attached to the surface of its root. Microscopic examination revealed normal dentin and pulp tissue. A nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate was observed around the rhinolith, and areas of regular and irregular mineralization were seen. Some mineralized areas exhibited melanin-like brownish pigmentation. Areas of mucus with deposits of mineral salts were also observed. Rare cases of an intranasal tooth associated with a rhinolith have been described in the literature. We believe that this case represents only the second published report of an intranasal tooth associated with a rhinolith in a patient with cleft lip and palate.

Unilateral parotid agenesis associated with pleomorphic adenoma of ipsilateral accessory parotid gland

January 24, 2013     Ashu Bhalla Seith, MD, MAMS; Ankur Gadodia, MD, DNB, MNAMS, FRCR; Raju Sharma, MD, MNAMS; Rajinder Parshad, MS
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Abstract

Congenital agenesis of the parotid gland is rare, and its association with accessory parotid tissue is even rarer. We report an unusual case of unilateral agenesis of the left parotid gland associated with pleomorphic adenoma of the left accessory parotid gland. To best of our knowledge, this is only the second such published case in the literature.

Large bilateral internal auditory meatus associated with bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence

January 24, 2013     Leonardo Manzari, MD; Paola Scagnelli, MD
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Abstract

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence and an abnormally wide internal auditory meatus are clinical entities characterized by vestibular and cochlear symptoms. These symptoms are induced by hypersensitivity of labyrinthine receptors secondary to a bone defect of the otic capsule. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with congenital right-sided hearing loss who presented with bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence that was associated with wide, bulbous internal auditory meatus and a loss of the bony wall separating the lateral end of the meatus from the cochlea. The patient was experiencing vestibular and cochlear symptoms in the right ear and disabling tinnitus in the left ear. However, he refused all treatment and was lost to follow-up.

Bipolar radiofrequency-induced interstitial thermoablation for oral cavity vascular malformations: Preliminary results in a series of 5 children

October 31, 2012     Senol Civelek, MD; Ibrahim Sayin, MD; Ibrahim Ercan, MD; Burak Omur Cakir, MD; Suat Turgut, MD
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Abstract

We report our assessment of the effectiveness of bipolar radiofrequency-induced interstitial thermoablation (BRIT) for the treatment of certain oral cavity vascular malformations in 5 children. Two of these patients had lymphangiomatous macroglossia (LM), 1 had lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC), and 2 had a venous malformation (VM). Each patient underwent BRIT at least twice; treatment was delivered at 4- to 8-week intervals according to each patient's circumstances. The 2 patients with LM required three treatment sessions; although their tongue volume decreased after each session, both still required a partial glossectomy to achieve a satisfactory reduction in volume. The patient with LC underwent two BRIT treatments, which reduced the size of the lesion by half; the remainder was excised. The 2 patients with a VM (1 buccal and 1 lingual) responded well to BRIT, and their malformations almost completely disappeared. Our early results with BRIT suggest that it is an effective treatment for oral cavity vascular malformations-more so for patients with venous rather than lymphangiomatous lesions.

Embryogenic cervico-thyro-piriform tract

October 4, 2012     J. Madana, MS, DNB; Deeke Yolmo, MS; Sunil Kumar Saxena, MS; S. Gopalakrishnan, MS
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Abstract

Branchial cleft fistulae are rare congenital anomalies that arise from the abnormal persistence of branchial remnants. Branchial arch anomalies are rare. They usually present as a lateral neck mass or abscess in the form of acute suppurative thyroiditis. A complete fistula of the third arch is extremely rare. We describe such a case in a 13-year-old girl who presented with a small opening in the left lower neck, from which a mucoid discharge had been present since birth. The fistula was accompanied by recurrent neck swelling. Computed tomography with contrast injection into the external skin opening revealed a continuous tract that extended to the base of the piriform sinus. Total excision of the tract up to the piriform sinus with a left hemithyroidectomy was performed. At follow-up 28 months postoperatively, the patient exhibited no evidence of recurrence.

Middle fossa repair of bilateral large congenital tegmental defects with meningoencephaloceles

June 4, 2012     Anil Joshi, MS(ENT), MRCS; Wendy Smith, FRCS(ORL–HNS); David A. Moffat, FRCS
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Abstract

Spontaneous temporal meningoencephaloceles are unusual. When they do occur, they present with a variety of signs and symptoms, which can make diagnosis and management challenging. We report the interesting case of a 49-year-old woman with bilateral congenital temporal meningoencephaloceles. She presented with a 12-month history of bilateral fluctuating hearing loss, and she more recently developed right-sided acute otitis media with meningitis. The presentation of bilateral extensive tegmental defects and meningoencephaloceles with a fluctuating hearing loss and meningitis associated with acute otitis media affecting one ear and then subsequently the other ear is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose. It requires a very careful clinical and radiologic assessment. Methods of surgical repair differ depending on the size of the defects.

Thyroid hemiagenesis

April 30, 2012     Kuang-chun Hsieh, MD; Montu Patel, MD; Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Harold R. Neitzschman, MD, FACR
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In cases of incidental thyroid hemiagenesis, findings on endocrinologic and functional studies are usually normal, and there is no evidence that the incidence of thyroid pathology is any greater in these patients than it is in the general population.

Giant tracheocele with multiple congenital anomalies

April 30, 2012     J. Madana, MS, DNB; Deeke Yolmo, MS; Sunil Kumar Saxena, MS; S. Gopalakrishnan, MS
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Abstract

Tracheocele-an outpouching of tracheal mucous membrane-is an uncommon entity. It can occur as a congenital or acquired form. The congenital entity remains mostly dormant until adulthood, and then it typically presents as a herniation with multiple air-filled sacs. The acquired form develops as the result of blunt trauma, recurrent pulmonary infection, intubation, instrumentation, or surgery, and it typically presents as a single paratracheal cavity. We present an extremely rare case of a tracheocele associated with multiple congenital anomalies involving the face, limbs, and heart.

Lateral ectopic thyroid: A case diagnosed preoperatively

March 31, 2012     Héctor Prado, MD, Alejandro Prado, MD, and Bertha Castillo, MD
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Abstract

Ectopic thyroid is an uncommon condition defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. When the process of embryologic migration is disturbed, aberrant thyroid tissue may appear. In most cases, ectopic thyroid is located along the embryologic descent path of migration as either a lingual thyroid or a thyroglossal duct cyst. In rare cases, aberrant migration can result in lateral ectopic thyroid tissue. Approximately 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Ectopic tissue frequently represents the only presence of thyroid tissue; a second site of orthotopic or ectopic thyroid tissue is found in other cases. The presentation of ectopic thyroid as a lateral mass should be differentiated from metastatic thyroid cancer; other differential diagnoses include a submandibular tumor, branchial cleft cyst, carotid body tumor, and lymphadenopathy of various etiologies. In addition to the history and physical examination, the workup for a patient with a submandibular mass suspicious for ectopic thyroid should include (1) technetium-99m or iodine-131 scintigraphy, (2) ultrasonography and either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, (3) fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and (4) thyroid function testing. No treatment is required for asymptomatic patients with normal thyroid function and cytology, but hypothyroid patients should be placed on thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Most cases are diagnosed postoperatively. Surgical treatment of ectopic thyroid should be considered when a malignancy is suspected or diagnosed, when the patient is symptomatic, or when thyroid suppression therapy fails.

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