Thyroid

Papillary thyroid carcinoma with nodular fasciitis-like stroma: A case report

October 26, 2011     Bevinahalli N. Nandeesh, MD, DNB, Anuradha Ananthamurthy, MD, Yeliur K. Inchara, MD, DNB, Marjorie M.A. Correa, MD, and Isha Garg, MD
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Abstract

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequently occurring malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland and is known to have several morphologic variants. PTC with nodular fasciitis-like stroma (PTC-NFS) is one of the unusual variants of PTC, with only a few cases being reported in the literature. This neoplasm is characterized by extensive reactive stromal proliferation, which may occupy 60 to 80% of the tumor along with areas of a typical papillary carcinoma. We report a case of PTC-NFS and address the diagnostic difficulties posed by the condition's extensive reactive stromal proliferation. We also emphasize that when one encounters a fibroproliferative lesion of the thyroid, a diligent search should also be made for PTC to avoid diagnostic errors.

Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid gland

September 20, 2011     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
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Cervical thymic cyst presenting as a possible cystic nodal metastasis of papillary carcinoma in a 53-year-old man

September 20, 2011     Woong Na, MD, Si-Hyong Jang, MD, Kyueng-Whan Min, MD, Seok Hyun Cho, MD, PhD, and Seung Sam Paik, MD, PhD
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Abstract

Cervical thymic cysts are rare embryonic remnants that develop along the course of thymic migration in the neck. They usually occur during infancy and childhood, and they are extremely rare in adults. We report a case of cervical thymic cyst in a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a small mass of the thyroid gland and a cystic mass at the left level II area of the neck. On histopathology, the thyroid mass was identified as a papillary carcinoma and the left-sided neck mass was diagnosed as a cervical thymic cyst lined with nonkeratinizing, flattened squamous epithelium. The cyst wall contained atrophic thymic tissue composed of lymphoid cells, epithelial cords, and Hassall corpuscles. Although it is rare, cervical thymic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lateral cystic neck mass in an adult.

Management of lateral cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer: Patterns of lymph node distribution

August 15, 2011     J. Michael King, MD, Christian Corbitt, MD, and Frank R. Miller, MD, FACS
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Abstract

In this article we discuss the management of lateral cervical lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of PTC at our tertiary academic medical center involving 32 patients who underwent 39 neck dissections for the management of lateral cervical metastases from 2000 to 2007. Of these patients, 18 underwent primary neck dissections at the time of thyroidectomy after fine-needle aspiration biopsy confirmed the PTC. Secondary neck dissections for delayed metastases were performed in 14 patients who had previously undergone thyroidectomy for confirmed PTC. All 32 patients had positive nodes in at least one level. Our results highlight the high incidence of multilevel cervical metastasis associated with PTC and suggest the importance of including level II-B (submuscular recess) when performing a neck dissection; the upper posterior triangle (level V-A) is less likely to harbor occult tumor. Lateral neck metastasis from PTC is common and predictable; locoregional control is improved with a formal, comprehensive neck dissection at the time of thyroidectomy.

Thyroidectomy for goiter relieves obstructive sleep apnea: Results of 8 cases

July 13, 2011     Mark T. Agrama, MD
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Abstract

The author conducted a retrospective study of 8 adults with euthyroid goiter that had resulted in tracheal compression and led to moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of thyroidectomy on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in these patients and to determine if there is a relationship between tracheal compression and OSA. These patients had been treated by the author in a community hospital over a 4-year period. All 8 patients had reported compressive symptoms of orthopnea and dysphagia, and 3 of them also reported dyspnea. Computed tomography of the neck and chest had been used to confirm the extent of goiter and tracheal compression. OSA had been confirmed with preoperative polysomnography. At 90 days post-thyroidectomy, repeat polysomnography had been obtained. At follow-up, all 8 patients had reported symptomatic control of compressive symptoms, and 7 patients had demonstrated postoperative improvement in their AHI. Overall, the mean postoperative AHI had decreased from 52.1 to 36.6-a statistically significant reduction of 29.8% (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that thyroidectomy for tracheal compression secondary to goiter can significantly alleviate symptoms and improve AHI in those patients who experience OSA. Evaluation of all patients with OSA should include screening for goiter-induced tracheal compression.

Kikuchi disease and thyroid follicular adenoma

August 31, 2010     Mohamed Abdel Khalek, MD, Xin Zhong, BS, Krzysztof Moroz, MD, and Emad Kandil, MD
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Predicting hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy: Parathyroid hormone level vs. serial calcium levels

August 31, 2010     Adam T. Graff, MD, Frank R. Miller, MD, FACS, Corrie E. Roehm, MD, and Thomas J. Prihoda, PhD
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Abstract

A 24- to 48-hour in-hospital observation period to monitor for hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy. Because most thyroidectomy patients do not experience this potentially serious complication, investigators have searched for methods and clinical indicators that may help stratify thyroidectomy patients according to their risk of developing hypocalcemia and identify those who can be safely discharged earlier. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the value of an immediate postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and serial calcium levels in predicting the development of hypocalcemia following total thyroidectomy. Our study population was made up of 69 consecutive patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy from January 2004 through March 2005. These patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their postoperative calcium levels; 11 patients (16%) had developed transient hypocalcemia (serum calcium level: <7.5 mg/dl) and 58 (84%) had remained normocalcemic. A model was developed to assess the relationship between early (<60 min) postoperative PTH levels and serial (6 and 18 hr) calcium levels, and the two-sample Student t test was used to identify differences between the two groups. Analysis showed that hypocalcemia was associated with a postoperative PTH level of less than 14 pg/ml and a negative serum calcium slope between 6 and 18 hours postoperatively. A single early postoperative intact PTH measurement may be the most cost-effective screening tool for hypocalcemia, but even greater specificity can be achieved by combining those findings with a serum calcium measurement taken 6 hours postoperatively. The combination of the two measurements represents the safest method of assessing risk and identifying those patients who can be discharged on the day of surgery.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma

June 30, 2010     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
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Type I thyroplasty revision 1 year after a window was mistakenly created on the cricoid cartilage

April 30, 2010     Hilmi Alper &Scedil;enkal, MD and Taner Yilmaz, MD
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Abstract

Unilateral vocal fold paralysis causes glottic incompetence and can result in significant morbidity. To prevent such morbidity, surgeons treat affected patients with vocal fold medialization techniques; type I thyroplasty medialization surgery is widely used for this purpose. In this procedure, a window is opened on the thyroid cartilage to allow for placement of a silicon prosthesis to medialize the vocal fold. A 38-year-old woman presented to our clinic for evaluation of hoarseness and a low-pitched voice, which we diagnosed as being caused by left vocal fold paralysis. Two years earlier, she had undergone a thyroidectomy for the treatment of benign thyroid disease. One year after that, she underwent type I thyroplasty medialization surgery at another center. During that operation, the surgeon had mistakenly created the window on the cricoid cartilage rather than the thyroid cartilage. When he inserted the silicon prosthesis into the cricoid window, the patient developed acute respiratory obstruction. At that point, the prosthesis was removed and the operation was terminated. One year later, she presented to us, and we performed a revision type I thyroplasty. Intraoperatively, we discovered that the original window had been opened on the cricoid cartilage instead of the thyroid cartilage, which was intact. We left the cricoid window untouched, opened a new window on the thyroid cartilage, and completed the type I thyroplasty in the usual fashion. The patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful, and she was doing well at 5 years of follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, no case of a thyroplasty window being opened on a cricoid cartilage has been reported in the literature.

Papillary carcinoma arising in median ectopic thyroid tissue: Management of the thyroid gland

April 30, 2010     Susan Cordes, MD and Jeffrey J. Nelson, MD
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Abstract

Thyroid tissue in an ectopic location is rare, 1 in 100,000 to 300,000 persons, and usually in the lateral neck. Median ectopic thyroid tissue is even more unusual, with the vast majority of cases being lingual thyroid tissue. We present a case of carcinoma arising in median, nonlingual ectopic thyroid tissue along with an analysis of the literature to determine the most appropriate management of the orthotopic thyroid gland.

Disseminated plasmacytoma of the thyroid

March 1, 2010     Brian J. Park, MD, MPH, Randy J. Kalish, MD, and Arthur P. Vercillo, MD
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Abstract

Extramedullary plasmacytomas most commonly occur in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. Thyroid involvement is rare, as fewer than 75 cases have been previously reported in the literature. We report a new case of disseminated plasmacytoma of the thyroid, which occurred in a 68-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made with an incisional biopsy. The patient initially experienced a complete response to radiotherapy (46.8 Gy in 26 fractions), but she developed multiple metastases at distant sites, including the breast, abdominal wall, and buttock despite various chemotherapy regimens. Ultimately, she was placed on palliative radiotherapy. We also briefly review the diagnostic and treatment options for patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma.

Parathyroid carcinoma: A rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism

August 31, 2009     Brian Kung, MD, Ronald Winokur, MD, David Cognetti, MD, Brian O'Hara, MD, and David Rosen, MD
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Abstract

Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (80 to 90%) are caused by a parathyroid adenoma; most of the rest are caused by either parathyroid gland hyperplasia or multiple adenomas. Parathyroid carcinoma can be the cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in 1 to 5% of patients. When the appropriate clinical scenario is presented, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis. We describe the case of a 72-year-old woman with a long history of hypercalcemia and arthritic shoulder and neck pain who was admitted with an elevated calcium level and acute renal failure secondary to bilateral obstructing ureteral calculi. A sestamibi scan and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of what appeared to be a right inferior parathyroid adenoma. Her intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 2,257 pg/ml. Following placement of bilateral ureteral stents and adequate hydration, the patient was taken to the operating room for a neck exploration and removal of a parathyroid adenoma with rapid intraoperative PTH monitoring. A 4 x 2.5-cm, 10-g mass was removed from the right inferior pole of the thyroid gland. Following excision, her intraoperative PTH level dropped from 1,103 to 110 pg/ml. Her ionized calcium levels fell from a high of 8.4 mg/dl preoperatively to 4.7 mg/dl. On final pathologic examination, the mass was confirmed to be a parathyroid carcinoma.

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