Skull Base

A case of bilateral internal auditory canal osteomas

January 21, 2014     Maria K. Brake, MD; David P. Morris, MD, FRCS(C); Jonathan Trites, MD, FRCS(C); S. Mark Taylor, MD, FRCS(C); Rene G. Van Wijhe, PhD; Robert D. Hart, MD, FRCS(C)
article

Abstract

Osteomas of the skull base are rare, benign, slowly progressing growths of dense cortical bone. Osteomas occurring in the internal auditory canal are extremely rare. These lesions have sometimes been linked with dizziness, sensorineural hearing loss, and/or tinnitus. Although there have been documented cases in which surgical excision has improved these symptoms, symptomatic relief is not always achieved with surgical management. Here we pre-sent, to the best of our knowledge, only the third reported case of bilateral osteomas of the internal auditory canal. An 82-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of vertigo without a history of trauma or ear infection. She reported two similar episodes occurring a few years earlier, with symptoms persisting for only a few days. Audiometry showed presbycusis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging identified bilateral internal auditory canal osteomas. The patient was treated conservatively, monitored, and had complete resolution of her symptoms.

Endoscopic appearance of a healed skull base resection reconstructed with a pedicled nasoseptal flap

October 23, 2013     Hadia M. Leon, MD; Mark H. Tabor, MD
article

Expanded endonasal approaches to the skull base are becoming more common, and closure of CSF leaks with reliable separation of the sinonasal tract from the cranial cavity is critical to a successful outcome.

A case of chronic subdural hematoma following lumbar drainage for the management of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: Pitfalls and lessons

October 23, 2013     Vincent Eng-Soon Tan, MD, MRCS, MS(ORL-HNS); Donald Liew, FRACS
article

Abstract

Chronic subdural hematoma as a complication of lumbar drain placement for the management of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak has not been previously documented in the literature. We describe such a case in a 69-year-old man who presented with right nasal obstruction secondary to an inverted papilloma involving the paranasal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, which included a medial maxillectomy. Surgery was complicated by a small CSF leak, which was repaired intraoperatively. Five days later, the patient experienced CSF rhinorrhea, and a lumbar drain was inserted. He developed overdrainage symptoms but was well when he was discharged. However, 22 days later he returned with right hemiparesis. Computed tomography of the brain showed a left frontoparietal subdural hematoma with a mass effect. The neurosurgical team performed an emergency drainage procedure, and the patient experienced a complete neurologic recovery. We discuss the pitfalls of lumbar drainage, the possible pathophysiology of overdrainage, and the lessons learned from this case.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Temporal bone invasion in an adult

October 23, 2013     Richard L. Alexander, MD, PhD, MBA; Mary L. Worthen, BS; Changlee S. Pang, MD; John S. May, MD
article

Despite the characteristic of extensive destruction of the temporal bone in this disease, the facial nerve is surprisingly resistant to destruction, and facial nerve palsy is rare.

A study of persistent unilateral middle ear effusion caused by occult skull base lesions

April 17, 2013     John P. Leonetti, MD
article

Abstract

The goal of this article is to review a series of patients with persistent unilateral middle ear effusion (MEE) and to suggest a more contemporary diagnostic algorithm. The author conducted a retrospective chart review of adults with persistent unilateral MEE and normal findings on physical and nasopharyngoscopic examinations whose MEE was eventually found to be caused by a variety of occult skull base lesions. The study population was made up of 79 patients-52 women and 27 men, aged 21 to 83 (mean: 54.8) at presentation-who had been referred to an academic tertiary care medical center between July 1, 1988, and June 30, 2008. Follow-up ranged from 9 months to 19.5 years (mean: 8.7 yr). Of this group, 50 patients (63.3%) had a malignant tumor, 26 (32.9%) had a benign tumor, and 3 (3.8%) had an internal carotid artery aneurysm. Eustachian tube occlusion had been caused by diffuse invasion in 33 patients (41.8%), by intracranial pathology in 24 (30.4%), and by extracranial-infratemporal lesions in 22 (27.8%). Nasopharyngoscopy cannot identify a variety of rare skull base lesions that cause eustachian tube compression or tissue invasion that ultimately leads to MEE. Therefore, patients with unexplained persistent unilateral MEE should undergo coronal magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography to look for any intra- or extracranial lesions before undergoing ventilation tube placement.

Skull base plasmacytoma with conductive hearing loss and an external auditory canal mass

July 5, 2012     Andrew I. Ahn, MD; Mary K. Wren, MD; Ted A. Meyer, MD, PhD
article

Abstract

Skull base plasmacytomas are rare and difficult to differentiate clinically and radiologically from other tumors of the head and neck. Because of the risk of progression to multiple myeloma, early diagnosis is essential. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with left-sided conductive hearing loss and an external auditory canal mass. The tumor was removed along with much of the tympanic membrane, and it was found to be a plasmacytoma. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with multiple myeloma and treated with chemoradiation before being lost to follow-up.

Aneurysmal bone cyst at the base of the skull

April 30, 2012     Arun Goyal, MS; Shalabh Rastogi, MS; P.P. Singh, MS; Sonal Sharma, MD
article

Abstract

Aneurysmal bone cysts have been described as pseudocysts in view of their lack of an epithelial lining. These cysts are uncommon, but when they do occur they typically involve the long bones of the extremities, the membranous bones of the thorax and pelvis, and the vertebrae. Skull involvement is uncommon. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with nasal obstruction and a swelling of the right cheek. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography detected a heterogeneous cystic mass involving the sphenoid and ethmoid bones. The mass was excised via a lateral rhinotomy approach, and it was identified as an aneurysmal bone cyst on histologic examination. The patient experienced a recurrence in the right sphenoid sinus within 3 months, and the lesion was removed via transnasal endoscopy.

Intracranial sarcoid granuloma as an extension of severe sinonasal sarcoidosis

March 31, 2012     Stephen M. Wold, MD and John T. Sinacori, MD
article

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It manifests with a wide range of symptoms and clinical findings, including some that occur in the head and neck. Sinonasal sarcoidosis, in particular, frequently demonstrates a rather recalcitrant course and a potential for severe complications if left untreated. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman with extensive sinonasal sarcoidosis that progressed to involve the skull base and olfactory tract and ultimately led to the formation of a granuloma within the frontal lobe that required craniotomy and excision. Although surgery is not considered the primary treatment modality for sarcoidosis, it may have a role in managing this highly variable disease in certain patients.

Multicentric giant cell tumor: Metachronous central and peripheral involvement

January 25, 2012     Alireza Karimi Yazdi, MD, Amir A. Sazgar, MD, and Ali Kouhi, MD
article

Abstract

Giant cell tumors are rare in the head and neck region. The most frequently involved sites of giant cell lesions in the head and neck are the maxilla and mandible, whereas the sphenoid and temporal bones are rarely involved. This tumor is usually located in the long bones of limbs. Reparative granuloma and brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism must be included in the differential diagnosis. Here we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a multicentric giant cell tumor with skull base involvement in a female patient. This case report demonstrates the similar pathophysiology of peripheral and central giant cell tumors.

Bilateral skull base osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient

December 15, 2011     Douglas Leventhal, MD, Thomas O. Willcox, MD, James J. Evans, MD, and Steven G. Finden, MD
article

Abstract

A 75-year-old immunocompetent man presented to our office with right otalgia. After a comprehensive workup, he was found to have right temporal bone osteomyelitis and was treated with intravenous antibiotics. He then began to experience left-sided otalgia and was diagnosed with and treated for left temporal bone osteomyelitis. Subsequently, he began to exhibit myelopathic symptoms, and imaging revealed a C2 inflammatory process. The patient underwent endoscopic transoral odontoidectomy with resection of a large C1 to C2 pannus and recovered with no neurologic deficit. Skull base osteomyelitis is an uncommon condition that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of utmost importance in managing this condition.

Enchondroma of the skull base secondary to generalized enchondromatosis: A case report and review of the literature

November 22, 2011     Derek J. Rogers, MD, Mark E. Boseley, MD, Mark J. Stephan, MD, Samuel Browd, MD, PhD, and David C. Semerad, MD
article

Abstract

Generalized enchondromatosis, of which Ollier disease is the most common type, is a rare bone dysplasia characterized by multiple intraosseous tumors near growth-plate cartilage. These cartilaginous tumors have a propensity to transform into chondrosarcomas. Enchondromas of the skull base are exceedingly rare. We present the case of a patient with generalized enchondromatosis who developed a large enchondroma of the clivus, and we discuss the clinical presentation and potential treatments for this entity.

Osteosarcoma of the skull base in a 15-year-old boy

October 26, 2011     Gretchen M. Oakley, BA, Dary J. Costa, MD, Ron B. Mitchell, MD, and Cirilo Sotelo, MD
article
Page
of 2Next