Mandible

Endometrial carcinoma metastatic to the retromolar pad

September 18, 2013     Hisham Hatoum, DDS; Bruno C. Jham, DDS, MS, PhD; Karen Garber, DMD; Jaime S. Brahim, DDS, MS; Mark A. Scheper, DDS, PhD
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Abstract

Metastatic carcinoma from the female genitalia to the oral mucosa is exceptionally rare, with only 11 such cases having been previously reported in the English-language literature. We describe a new case in a 65-year-old woman with a history of endometrial carcinoma who presented with swelling of the retromolar pad. Radiographic examination showed slight opacities and irregular trabecular bone in the left posterior mandible. Following an incisional biopsy, histologic examination and immunohistochemical studies revealed glandular adenocarcinoma with positivity for progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor, and cytokeratin 7. The patient was referred to her primary care physician for comprehensive treatment. This case illustrates the value of considering cancer metastasis in the differential diagnosis of an oral swelling, particularly in a patient with a history of cancer.

Osteosarcoma

July 21, 2013     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD
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Osteosarcoma affects the mandible and the maxilla differently, with mandibular tumors tending to arise from the body of the mandible while maxillary tumors arise from the alveolar ridge and sinus.

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint

July 21, 2013     Helen Giannakopoulos, DDS, MD; Joli C. Chou, DMD, MD; Peter D. Quinn, DMD, MD
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Abstract

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative disorder that affects synovium-lined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It appears in both diffuse and localized forms, depending on the extent of synovial involvement. PVNS rarely involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ); when it does, it manifests clinically as a slowly growing and painless preauricular mass that resembles a parotid tumor. TMJ dysfunction, paresthesia, and/or hearing loss can result. We present a case of a large extra-articular PVNS of the TMJ, and we review the literature.

Hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the mandible

February 25, 2013     Mia E. Miller, MD; Andrew A. McCall, MD; Guy F. Juillard, MD; Celina M. Nadelman, MD; Marilene B. Wang, MD; Vishad Nabili, MD
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Abstract

We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with known multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who presented with a painful mandibular mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed the presence of bile canaliculi and bile formation, an extremely rare finding. Findings on immunoperoxidase staining of the aspirate were consistent with an HCC. Since the patient was known to have multiorgan metastatic disease, he was administered palliative radiation therapy to the mandibular metastasis for pain control, which was achieved. One year after presentation, the patient died as a result of disease progression. HCC rarely metastasizes to the mandible, as only about 70 such cases have been reported in the literature. We discuss the histopathologic appearance of HCC metastatic to the mandible, the radiologic findings, and the established treatment modalities.

Chronic focal Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the left mandibular condyle presenting as limited jaw opening: A case report

October 8, 2012     Juan F. Yepes, DDS, MD, DrPH; Mohd Khalaf, DDS; Larry Cunningham, DDS, MD, FACS; John Lindroth, DDS
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Abstract

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are common in the general population, with a particularly high prevalence among girls and women aged 15 to 25 years. The presence of chronic focal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the mandibular condyle is rare, as only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who was referred to the Orofacial Pain Center at the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry with a chief complaint of limited jaw opening of 7 months’ duration. She had previously received a preliminary diagnosis of a TMJ disorder and had been treated conservatively, but she did not improve. An initial panoramic film revealed a suspicious radiolucent area at the head of the left mandibular condyle. She was eventually diagnosed on histopathology with chronic focal Langerhans cell histiocytosis. She was treated with condylectomy and surgical curettage of the lesion.

Mandibular condyle reconstruction with fibula free-tissue transfer

September 7, 2012     Eric J. Moore, MD; Steven S. Hamilton, MD
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Abstract

We conducted a study to evaluate functional and cosmetic outcomes following reconstruction of the mandibular condyle with direct placement of a vascularized free fibula. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had undergone hemimandibulectomy and condyle resection with immediate reconstruction at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., between Nov. 1, 2005, and Jan. 31, 2007. We found 7 such cases, all of which occurred in men aged 32 to 61 years (mean: 50.7). Six of these patients had a malignancy and 1 had osteomyelitis. Postoperatively, 6 patients had no difficulty with occlusion, which was rated as “good” or “excellent” at their 6-month follow-up visit; the other patient had an open-bite deformity, but he was able to masticate solid food and maintain an oral diet. Cosmesis was generally satisfactory, and all patients maintained intelligible speech. We conclude that free fibula transfer with direct seating of the fibula into the condylar fossa followed by aggressive physiotherapy provides acceptable functional reconstruction of the mandibulectomy-condylectomy defect.

An expansile mandibular mass as the initial manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma

February 1, 2011     J. Clinton Lasiter, MD, Benjamin D. Liess, MD, Robert P. Zitsch III, MD, and Jessica Wieberg, MD
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Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently encountered malignancies. Distant metastasis is a common sequela, occurring in approximately 50% of cases. Metastasis to the oral cavity is very rare. Careful immunohistochemical evaluation is critical in differentiating HCC from other metastatic malignancies. An understanding of the possibility that HCC may initially present as a mandibular metastasis is crucial to guide management. We describe the case of a 76-year-old man with a 3- to 4-month history of a painless, slowly enlarging, left-sided jaw mass. Biopsy findings were consistent with HCC. While the patient was a known hepatitis C carrier, the presence of HCC had been previously unknown. Additional workup revealed a large hepatic lesion. In view of his poor health, the patient elected to forgo chemotherapy, and he entered a hospice facility. This case provides an illustration that an isolated mandibular mass may represent the initial presentation of HCC. Subsequent identification of the primary tumor via radiographic and pathologic evaluations is important for the guidance of further management.

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible

September 30, 2010     Lana E. Brahmakulam, DO and Bosco E. Noronha, MD, FRCS(Eng), FRCE(Ire)
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Abstract

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the mandible is rare. We describe a case of MFH of the mandible with metastatic disease to the lungs. To our knowledge only 30 cases have been reported prior to the present case. In previously reported cases, there was a strong tendency for the posterior portion of the mandible to be affected by MFH; ours is only the second reported case involving the anterior portion of the mandible. We review the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of this rare malignancy.

Paget disease and chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible

March 31, 2010     Hootan Zandifar, MD, Jason S. Hamilton, MD, Ryan F. Osborne, MD, Ron E. Walsh, NP, and Robert M. Kellman, MD
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Carcinoma of the prostate presenting as a painful parotid mass with mandibular invasion: A case report

December 1, 2009     Christian S. Head, MD, Khashayar Hematpour, MD, Joel Sercarz, MD, Quang Luu, MD, and Carol J. Bennett, MD
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Abstract

Prostate cancer metastatic to the parotid gland is exceedingly rare, as only 10 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Symptoms may mimic a parotid infection or suggest a primary parotid tumor. We report a new case of carcinoma of the prostate metastatic to the parotid. The tumor was painful and had invaded the mandible. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass and immunohistochemical staining for prostate-specific antigen confirmed the diagnosis. The patient died 1 month later of an unrelated cause.

Surgical treatment is warranted in aggressive central giant cell granuloma: A report of 2 cases

March 1, 2009     Jason Roberts, MD, Carol Shores, MD, and Austin S. Rose, MD
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Abstract

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign but locally destructive lesion of the mandible or maxilla that presents most often in the second and third decades of life. Reports of treatment include curettage or complete en bloc resection and nonsurgical approaches such as intralesional steroid injections, interferon alfa-2a, and calcitonin. We describe the cases of 2 young adults with CGCG of the maxilla involving the palate. The first patient, an 18-year-old man, was initially treated with a partial maxillectomy via a facial degloving approach and a postoperative series of transoral intralesional steroid injections to the site of the residual hard palate disease. The partial maxillectomy achieved a near-total debulking of the mass and immediate cosmetic improvement, and the steroid injections resulted in initial regression of the residual disease. However, the patient experienced a recurrence 8 months postoperatively, so a bilateral total inferior maxillectomy via a facial degloving approach was performed with subsequent placement of an obturator. No recurrence was seen 15 months following revision surgery. In view of the incomplete resolution of disease with the use of steroid injections in the first patient, we treated the second patient, a 22-year-old woman, with a subtotal maxillectomy without steroid injection. No recurrence of disease was noted 12 months postoperatively. We conclude that a combination of partial surgical resection and intralesional steroid injection may not be sufficient for the treatment of large CGCGs of the maxilla. Complete surgical resection should be considered for the initial treatment of CGCG, particularly in aggressive cases.

Gorham disease of the mandible: Radiographic findings and radiotherapy response

June 1, 2008     Thomas B. Skidmore, MD, Christopher M. Lee, MD, Thomas M. Abbott, MD, Richard H. Wiggins III, MD, Gregory E. Anderson, DDS, Jonathan D. Tward, MD, and Ying Hitchcock, MD
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Abstract

Gorham disease, a rare condition of unknown etiology, is characterized histologically by bone disintegration and endothelial proliferation. We describe serial imaging findings, the treatment course, and radiotherapy response in a patient with pathologically confirmed Gorham disease involving the right mandible. Progressive mandibular resorption was managed initially with multiple surgical resections and reconstruction, followed by external-beam radiotherapy, which was an effective treatment method in this case. The patient's reconstructed mandible is functional and he is asymptomatic. Our literature review provides further insights regarding the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic behavior of this entity and examines the available treatment strategies.

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