Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocyte disorder that is typically characterized by massive cervical lymphadenopathy. Isolated extranodal involvement is uncommon, and isolated laryngeal involvement is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement that led to recurrent dysphonia and airway obstruction. We discuss the challenges we faced in reaching a correct pathologic diagnosis and in deciding on an appropriate treatment regimen. Based on our experience, we believe that Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with a recurrent inflammatory (histiocytic) mass lesion of the larynx.
Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy) is a rare proliferative disorder of histiocytes. Its etiology is unclear. Clinical characteristics often include a painless cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, leukocytosis, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia.1
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