Articles

An unusual case of acute periorbital swelling

October 17, 2014     Sara Torretta, MD; Alessandra Brevi, MD; Davide Pagani, MD; Lorenzo Pignataro, MD

Abstract

Periorbital swelling is frequently encountered in ear, nose, and throat practices and, as it may be secondary to acute sinusitis, delayed diagnosis may lead to significant morbidity. We describe the case of a 24-year-old man with acute ethmoid-maxillary sinusitis and ipsilateral facial swelling particularly involving the periorbital area. We also discuss the workup that led to the formulation of an unusual diagnosis.

Submental nodular fasciitis: Report of an unusual case

October 17, 2014     Jiun Fong Thong, MRCS(Eng); Tiong Yong Tan, FRCR(UK); Shi Wang, FRCPA(UK); Paul Mok, FRCS(Glasg); David Loke, FRCS(Edin)

Abstract

A 30-year-old woman presented for evaluation of a hard, enlarging, submental mass that was fixed to the underlying mandible. Fine-needle aspiration cytology initially led to a diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma, which was unusual given the superficial location of the lesion on computed tomography. The lesion was a well-defined rim-enhancing mass, and it had displaced adjacent structures medially. Intraoperatively, the mass was found to abut against and erode the mandibular cortex. A diagnosis of nodular fasciitis was established by histologic analysis. Such a location for this tumor is unusual. The prognosis for patients with this benign condition is excellent following complete surgical excision. We discuss the clinical presentation and the cytologic, histologic, and radiologic features of this uncommon entity.

Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath in the external auditory canal

October 17, 2014     Margherita Trani, MD; Massimo Zanni, MD; Paolo Gambelli, MD

Abstract

Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) and pigmented villonodular synovitis belong to the same type of benign proliferative lesions originating in the synovia that usually affect the joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. They frequently involve the hands, knees, ankles, and feet. We report a case of GCTTS in the external auditory canal in a 53-year-old woman who presented with hearing loss, fullness, and a sessile lesion protruding from the anterior wall of her external ear canal. The 1.5-cm diameter mass was spherical, well encapsulated, firm, and covered with normal skin. The lesion was completely excised, and the patient's symptoms resolved. No recurrence was detected at 2 years of follow-up.

Hypopharyngeal hemangioma in an adult: A case report

October 17, 2014     Lindsay Reder, MD; Sunil Verma, MD; Niels Kokot, MD

Abstract

Hemangiomas of the postcricoid region have been reported almost exclusively in infants and young children. Our adult patient with symptoms of dysphagia and weight loss underwent transoral CO2 laser microsurgery of a postcricoid mass, and final pathologic examination confirmed the presence of a hemangioma. She is doing well after surgery, with an excellent voice, resolution of dysphagia, and no evidence of recurrence. There have been few cases of hypopharyngeal hemangioma in the adult population; to our knowledge, there have been no reports in the English-language literature of adult patients diagnosed specifically with a postcricoid hemangioma. Otolaryngologists should be familiar with the presentation and treatment of this unusual entity.

Rapid growth of a laryngeal oncocytic cyst after surgical irritation

October 17, 2014     John T. Sinacori, MD; Robert A. Jack II, MD; Jonathan R. Workman, MD

The origin of oncocytic lesions remains controversial. They occur more frequently with increasing age, and patients commonly present with a prolonged duration of hoarseness

Osteoma of the middle ear

October 17, 2014     Tsung-Shun Chang, MD; Wen-Sen Lai, MD; Chao-Yin Kuo, MD; Chih-Hung Wang, MD, PhD

Management of middle ear osteoma can be complicated when the round window is obliterated. Therefore, the patient should be informed about what to expect prior to surgery.

Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear

October 17, 2014     Paolo Fois, MD; Anna Lisa Giannuzzi, MD; Carlo Terenzio Paties, MD; Maurizio Falcioni, MD

Abstract

Choristoma of the middle ear is a rare condition characterized by the presence of normal salivary gland tissue in the middle ear space. Salivary gland choristomas are benign lesions that are frequently associated with ossicular chain and facial nerve anomalies. Total surgical excision is indicated when there is no risk of damaging the facial nerve. We describe a new case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear, and we discuss the etiology, histologic features, and management of such lesions. Our patient was a 22-year-old woman in whom we surgically removed a whitish retrotympanic mass. Intraoperatively, we also detected an ossicular chain malformation. Histologic examination of the choristoma revealed the presence of salivary gland tissue. Furthermore, the lesion contained an extensive and previously undescribed component: a well-defined pseudostratified respiratory-type epithelium, similar to that of a normal eustachian tube. Ten months after removal of the choristoma, we surgically repaired the ossicular chain anomalies. No recurrence was noted on follow-up.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a supraglottic mass

October 17, 2014     Jeremy White, MD; Ahmed Mohyeldin, MD, PhD; Arnold Schwartz, MD, PhD; Steven Bielamowicz, MD

Abstract

We report a rare case of medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a metastasis to the supraglottic larynx. A 92-year-old man with a 3-month history of voice change and airway obstruction was diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the supraglottis. Excision of the mass, total thyroidectomy, and elective neck dissection were recommended, but the patient declined because of his advanced age. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis when associated with a distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid presenting as a supraglottic mass. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and surgical excision of the entire tumor comprise the treatment of choice.

Hypocalcemia after minimally invasive thyroidectomy

September 17, 2014     Doug Massick, MD; Matthew R. Garrett, MD

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia following minimally invasive thyroidectomy. During the 2-year study period, 74 patients-16 men and 58 women (mean age: 43.7)-underwent either total or hemithyroidectomy through a 3-cm incision. Postoperative hypocalcemia occurred in 14 of these patients (18.9%)-4 men and 10 women-all of whom underwent total rather than hemithyroidectomy. All these patients received supplementation with calcium and vitamin D for 2 weeks postoperatively in order to regain a normal calcium status, and all demonstrated normal serum calcium levels at 3 weeks. Despite their low calcium levels, none of the 14 patients exhibited any overt symptoms of hypocalcemia. We conclude that minimally invasive thyroidectomy is associated with a low rate of postoperative hypocalcemia that is comparable to the rates previously reported for standard thyroidectomy.

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the mandible: A rare malignant tumor

September 17, 2014     Rakesh Kumar Singh, MS; Saurabh Varshney, MS; Sampan Singh Bist, MS; Meena Harsh, MD; Nitin Gupta, MD

Abstract

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCHS) is a highly aggressive, malignant, cartilaginous tumor that represents about 1% of all chondrosarcomas. Only about 50 cases of MCHS of the jaw have been reported in the English-language literature; maxillary tumors are much more common than mandibular tumors. We present a new case of MCHS of the mandible that arose in a 22-year-old woman whose initial two biopsies did not reveal the features of the tumor. The diagnosis was made only after an incisional biopsy.

Ear mold impression material as an aural foreign body

September 17, 2014     Yu-Hsuan Lin, MD; Ming-Yee Lin, MD, PhD

Physicians should not rush indiscriminately into action without a careful otoscopic examination and a detailed history, to discern whether a patient has abnormal anatomy and is at risk for complications.

Chronic rhinosinusitis in patients requiring surgical repair of a midface fracture

September 17, 2014     Joshua C. Yelverton, MD; Peter Jackson, MD; Robert S. Schmidt, MD

Abstract

Midface fractures commonly occur following trauma to the face and may cause changes in the normal sinus outflow system. To the best of our knowledge, no study has examined the incidence of rhinosinusitis following midface fractures. We report the incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis in patients who underwent surgical repair of a midface fracture. Our evaluation tool was the 20-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test quality-of-life survey (SNOT-20). We mailed a demographic survey and the SNOT-20 questionnaire to 486 eligible patients who had undergone surgical repair of either a midface (n = 234) or mandible (n = 252) fracture; we had intended to use the latter cohort as a control group. Of the 234 midface patients, 34 (14.5%) returned a usable survey, but only 7 of the 252 mandibular patients (2.8%) did so, which was not a sufficient number for analysis; therefore we used normative data obtained from another study for comparison purposes. The mean SNOT-20 score in our cohort was 24.15, which was similar to the 28.7 mean score in the control cohort of patients with rhinosinusitis. The highest mean scores for the individual components of the SNOT-20 were for “Wake up at night,” “Lack of a good night's sleep,” “Wake up tired,” and “Frustrated/restless/irritable.” The components that the most patients found bothersome were “Facial pain/pressure,” “Need to blow nose,” “Runny nose,” and “Lack of a good night's sleep.” We conclude that patients who experience a midface fracture have a much higher risk of developing chronic rhinosinusitis that negatively affects their long-term quality of life. These patients should be monitored with long-term follow-up and treated appropriately.

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor

September 17, 2014     Lester D.R. Thompson, MD

Bite-wing or orthopantomograph images reveal a well-defined, unilocular radiolucency with a smooth border, showing minimal bone expansion and even cortication.

Stylohyoid syndrome, also known as Eagle syndrome: An uncommon cause of facial pain

September 17, 2014     Erin L. Werhun, MD; Mandy C. Weidenhaft, MD; Enrique Palacios, MD, FACR; Harold Neitzschman, MD, FACR

Eagle syndrome is often a diagnosis of exclusion after other etiologies of pain are thoroughly investigated, and it can be determined via a physical examination and characteristic radiographic findings.

Pedunculated cavernous hemangioma originating in the olfactory cleft

September 17, 2014     Kaiming Su, MD, PhD; Weitian Zhang, MD, PhD; Haibo Shi, MD, PhD; Shankai Yin, MD, PhD

Abstract

Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature.

Report of a rare case of carcinoma arising in a branchial cyst

September 17, 2014     Natarajan Anantharajan, MBBS, MS, MRCS; Nagamuttu Ravindranathan, BDS, MBBS, FRCS(Edin)

Abstract

Primary branchiogenic carcinoma is a rare condition. In fact, most of the cases that were previously reported as such were actually cystic metastases of oropharyngeal carcinomas. We report a true case of primary branchial cleft cyst carcinoma. Our patient was a 42-year-old woman who presented with a painless fluctuant swelling in the right side of her neck. The lesion was completely excised, and pathology identified it as a squamous cell carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst. Patients with this condition require a careful evaluation of the entire head and neck region, especially the oropharynx, to look for any cystic metastasis of the primary tumor.

Cochlear fistula in a noncholesteatomatous ear

September 17, 2014     Yoav Hahn, MD; Dennis I. Bojrab, MD

Abstract

Bony destruction of the labyrinth is usually associated with long-standing cholesteatomatous otitis media. The promontory is not a common site for bone resorption because (1) it is not an area that is involved in accumulation of cholesteatoma perimatrix substances, (2) it is the densest bone of the human body, and (3) pressure necrosis from overlying tissue is uncommon. We report a case of cochlear erosion associated with noncholesteatomatous middle ear disease. As far as we know, this is only the second such case reported in the literature. We also review decision-making factors and techniques for the safe management of this condition.

Plummer-Vinson syndrome following gastric bypass surgery

September 17, 2014     Andrew Sapthavee, MD; Matthew L. Kircher, MD; Lee M. Akst, MD

Abstract

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is the combination of dysphagia, angular cheilitis, atrophic glossitis, and esophageal webbing in the setting of iron deficiency anemia. Although it is relatively uncommon, this condition is important to recognize because it is a source of dysphagia and it confers an increased risk for hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases of PVS associated with gastrointestinal conditions such as celiac disease and gastric cancer have been previously reported in the literature, but as far as we know, no case of PVS associated with bariatric surgery has been previously reported. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who developed PVS following gastric bypass surgery, and we briefly discuss the current knowledge of this syndrome.

Bilateral nontuberculous mycobacterial middle ear infection: A rare case

September 17, 2014     Ing Ping Tang, MS; Shashinder Singh, MS; Raman Rajagopalan, MS

Abstract

Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) middle ear infection is a rare cause of chronic bilateral intermittent otorrhea. We report a rare case of bilateral NTM middle ear infection in which a 55-year-old woman presented with intermittent otorrhea of 40 years' duration. The patient was treated medically with success. We conclude that NTM is a rare but probably under-recognized cause of chronic otitis media. A high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis to avoid prolonged morbidity. Treatment includes surgical clearance of infected tissue with appropriate antimycobacterial drugs, which are selected based on culture and sensitivity.

Solitary myofibroma of the oropharynx causing airway obstruction in an adult

September 17, 2014     Harrison W. Lin, MD; David Jung, MD, PhD; Linda N. Lee, MD; Peter M. Sadow, MD, PhD; James W. Rocco, MD, PhD

Abstract

Myofibromas are benign neoplasms believed to be the most common fibrous proliferation of childhood. We present an unusual case of a 44-year-old woman who developed acute airway obstruction from a myofibroma in the oropharynx and accordingly required emergent tracheotomy tube placement. Serial laser excisions to adequately remove the entire lesion while maintaining pharyngeal structure and function were performed, and the patient was successfully decannulated. To date she has remained free of signs and symptoms of recurrence. Although rare in adults, solitary myofibromas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any subcutaneous or submucosal head and neck lesion. Moreover, clinicians treating adult and pediatric patients with known solitary or multicentric forms of myofibroma should be aware of its potential for airway obstruction. Patients found to have a pharyngeal myofibroma should be managed with airway stabilization, surgical excision with preservation of speech and swallow function, and close postoperative monitoring for recurrence.

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