Articles

Pseudo third cranial nerve palsy secondary to orbital ectopic lacrimal gland cyst: Management with functional endoscopic sinus surgery

February 12, 2014     Puneet S. Braich, BSc; Jonathan E. Silbert, MD; Andrew J. Levada, MD; and Neil R. Schiff, MD

Abstract

An otherwise healthy 13-month-old girl was noted by her pediatrician to have developed a left head turn. The patient was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist, who noticed signs of incomplete third cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an abnormal lesion in the inferonasal orbit that was abutting the ethmoid sinus. After consultation with an ENT specialist, the decision was made to remove the lesion via functional endoscopic sinus surgery because this approach was deemed to provide adequate access while limiting morbidity. Histology of the excised lesion identified it as true ectopic lacrimal gland tissue with cysts. We recognize and comment on the fact that in many reported cases of ectopic lacrimal gland cyst, the tissue was not ectopic at all but instead represented an extension of normal lacrimal gland tissue.

Delayed recovery of speech discrimination after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma in neurofibromatosis 2

February 12, 2014     Michael Hoa, MD; Eric P. Wilkinson, MD; and William H. Slattery III, MD

Abstract

Hearing loss commonly occurs after radiation therapy for an acoustic neuroma, and it is highly unusual for hearing to return after a prolonged period of time. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis 2 who underwent fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of a left-sided vestibular schwannoma. Following treatment, he demonstrated an elevation of pure-tone audiometric thresholds and a sudden decrease in speech discrimination score (SDS) to 0%. However, 20 months postoperatively, his SDS suddenly and spontaneously rose to 92%, although there was no improvement in his speech reception threshold. We discuss the possible reasons for the unusual outcome in this patient.

Endoscopic view of sphenoid sinus illumination and transillumination

February 12, 2014     Ken Yanagisawa, MD, FACS; Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; and Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

The sphenoid sinus has been considered a more challenging sinus to view with the lighted guide wire; unlike the other three paranasal sinuses, the sphenoid sinus is “hidden” from view because of its more posterior location.

Eosinophilic otitis media

February 12, 2014     Alejandro Vazquez, MD; Danielle M. Blake, BA; and Robert W. Jyung, MD

Eosinophilic otitis media is refractory to conventional therapy for otitis media and may lead to severe hearing impairment if not recognized promptly.

Accessory parotid malignancy requiring ductal transection

February 12, 2014     Avery Kaplan; Alex Fernandez, MS; and Ryan Osborne, MD, FACS

While malignancies of the accessory parotid gland are rare, when they do occur they jeopardize ductal integrity.

Laryngeal tuberculosis: Use of videostroboscopy in diagnosis

February 12, 2014     Michelle Levian, DO; Amy Chapman, MA-SLP; and Reena Gupta, MD

The diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis is often suspected clinically, but in patients with less specific symptoms, flexible laryngoscopy may reveal only an inflammatory picture.

Recurrent auricular perichondritis in a child as the initial manifestation of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A case report

February 12, 2014     Andria M. Caruso, MD; Macario Camacho Jr., MD; and Scott Brietzke, MD

Abstract

An 8-year-old boy presented to our otolaryngology clinic three times in a 3-month period for treatment of acute auricular perichondritis. At each visit he was treated with an antibiotic, and he responded quickly in each case, with a complete resolution of his infection. The results of standard autoimmune laboratory tests were negative. Three months after his initial presentation, the patient developed the classic signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, including polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. He was diagnosed with and treated for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, and his recurrent infections ceased. There has been no recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period. This case report serves to illustrate the fact that recurrent infections may be the first sign of diabetes. Since diabetes and perichondritis are known to be associated, we recommend that for patients who present with recurrent episodes of perichondritis, a basic metabolic panel and measurement of the glycosylated hemoglobin level be added to standard autoimmune laboratory testing to possibly identify undiagnosed diabetes.

Unusual presentations of choanal polyps: Report of 3 cases

February 12, 2014     Ali Ozdek, MD; Halil Erdem Ozel, MD

Abstract

Most choanal polyps arise from the maxillary sinus, and they are called antrochoanal polyps. Their typical endoscopic and radiologic appearance makes them easy to diagnose. However, some choanal polyps originate in unusual sites in the paranasal sinuses and nose, such as the sphenoid sinus and the lateral wall of the nose. These polyps usually present unilaterally, although bilateral presentations are possible. We describe 3 cases of atypical choanal polyps: a sphenochoanal polyp, bilateral antrochoanal polyps, and a giant antrochoanal polyp. In each case, nasal endoscopy and computed tomography clinched the diagnosis, and endoscopic surgery was performed to successfully remove the polyp. We discuss the clinical characteristics of these 3 cases.

Acquired cholesteatoma presenting as a pars squamosa temporal bone mass

February 12, 2014     Christopher Vanison, MD; Eric M. Jaryszak, MD, PhD; Amanda L. Yaun, MD; and Diego A. Preciado, MD, PhD

Abstract

Acquired cholesteatomas typically arise in the middle ear and mastoid cavities; they rarely present elsewhere. We describe a case of acquired cholesteatoma that presented as a large mass of the pars squamosa of the temporal bone in a 16-year-old girl. The mass was surgically removed without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of an acquired cholesteatoma in the lateral temporal bone.

Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve paralysis associated with low-voltage electrical shock

February 12, 2014     Mahmut Ozkiris;, MD

Abstract

Electrical injuries can occur as a result of contact with low- or high-voltage electricity. Low-voltage injuries are more common, as they usually occur in the home, but reports in the literature are few. After exposure to electric current, almost every organ system in the body is affected. The severity of an injury depends on many factors, including the type of current, the duration of exposure, and the resistance of the tissue involved. Reported cases of hearing loss and facial nerve paralysis associated with low-voltage electrical shock are rare, and minimal information is available about this circumstance. In this article, the author describes a case of low-voltage electrical shock in a 20-year-old man. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of a resolution of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve paralysis caused by a low-voltage electrical shock.

Osteochondroma of the nasal dorsum presenting as a nasal hump

February 12, 2014     Hakan Tutar, MD; Aykut Erdem Dinc, MD; Omer Uluoglu, MD; and Metin Yilmaz, MD

Abstract

We describe the case of a 24-year-old man who underwent open septorhinoplasty for the treatment of progressive nasal disfigurement caused by a nasal hump. Postoperative histopathology of the resected hump revealed that it was an osteochondroma. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an osteochondroma involving the nasal dorsum to be reported in the English-language literature.

Conservative cricoid surgery for chondrosarcoma: A case report

February 12, 2014     Elena Gaio, MD; Giandomenico Maggiore, MD; Alessandra Canesso, MD; and Riccardo Artico, MD

Abstract

We present the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with hoarseness and progressively worsening dyspnea. Findings on laryngoscopy and computed tomography strongly suggested the presence of a chondrosarcoma. The patient underwent open surgery for removal of the lesion with wide margins. Reconstruction was carried out with two segments of costal cartilage. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare, malignant, usually well-differentiated neoplasms that should be treated with conservative surgery. Recurrences should be treated more aggressively.

Nonmicroscopic reconstruction of subtotally amputated/torn auricles: Report of 3 cases

February 12, 2014     Shuaib K. Aremu, FWACS

Abstract

Otolaryngologists are increasingly expected to perform a variety of minor surgical procedures in both elective and emergency situations. Surgical repair of the subtotally amputated/torn auricle, hitherto the realm of plastic surgeons, is a procedure that can be performed both at the clinic and in the emergency room, thereby sparing patients the inconvenience and cost of referral to another subspecialist. Presented in this article are 3 cases of traumatic tearing/amputation of the external ear: 1 caused by a motorbike accident, 1 caused by a human bite, and 1 by a machete. All three ears were successfully reconstructed nonmicrovascularly.

World Voice Day 2014

February 12, 2014     Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS, Editor-in-Chief

Iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema after dental treatment

February 12, 2014     Young S. Paik, MD; Kevin W. Lollar, MD; and C.W. David Chang, MD

Abstract

Subcutaneous emphysema as a complication of a dental procedure is uncommon. When it does occur, it can result in significant and sometimes alarming cervicofacial swelling. Management in most cases involves close observation while awaiting spontaneous resolution. However, in some cases the swelling can progress to cause serious complications and even death. Even though such complications are more commonly seen by our dental and oromaxillofacial surgery colleagues, otolaryngologists should be aware of this condition since we are often asked to consult in these cases. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department of our institution with an unusually dramatic acute-onset cervicofacial swelling after she had undergone a dental procedure earlier in the day. Computed tomography revealed subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was admitted to the hospital for close observation, and within 24 hours her condition had improved significantly. Shortly after discharge, she experienced a complete recovery. We review the clinical presentation, physical examination findings, diagnostic workup, and management of this complication.

A case of direct intracranial extension of tuberculous otitis media

February 12, 2014     Dong-Kee Kim, MD; Shi-Nae Park, MD, PhD; Kyung-Ho Park, MD, PhD; and Sang Won Yeo, MD, PhD

Abstract

We describe a very rare case of tuberculous otitis media (TOM) with direct intracranial extension. The patient was a 55-year-old man who presented to our ENT clinic for evaluation of severe headaches and right-sided otorrhea. A biopsy of granulation tissue obtained from the right external auditory canal demonstrated chronic inflammation that was suggestive of mycobacterial infection. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain indicated intracranial extension of TOM through a destroyed tegmen mastoideum. After 2 months of antituberculous medication, the headaches and otorrhea were controlled, and the swelling in the external ear canal subsided greatly. Rarely does TOM spread intracranially. In most such cases, intracranial extension of tuberculosis occurs as the result of hematogenous or lymphogenous spread. In rare cases, direct spread through destroyed bone can occur, as it did in our patient.

Organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus: A clinicopathologic study of 5 cases

February 12, 2014     Hidenori Yokoi, MD, PhD; Atsushi Arakawa, MD, PhD; Fumihiko Matsumoto, MD, PhD; Naoko Yokoi, MD, PhD; Katsuhisa Ikeda, MD, PhD; and Naoyuki Kohno, MD, PhD

Abstract

Organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus is rare. Its pathogenesis is still not clear, and it appears to have multiple causes. We report the clinical, clinicopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in 5 patients-3 men and 2 women, aged 19 to 68 years (mean: 40.2)-with pathologically proven organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. In all 5 cases, we were able to successfully perform curative treatment via endoscopic sinus surgery. Our findings suggest that most organized hematomas are angiomatous. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the presence of proliferative activity.

The significance of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings in sphenoid sinus agenesis

February 12, 2014     Lokman Uzun, MD; Omer Faik Sagun, MD; Bulent Seferoglu, MD; Omer Etlik, MD; and Kamran Mahmutyazicioglu, MD

Abstract

Agenesis of the sphenoid sinuses is a very rarely encountered anatomic variation. Findings on magnetic resonance imaging can mislead the radiologist and clinician. Therefore, the gold standard for diagnosis is computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with a 3-month history of headache. CT of the paranasal sinuses revealed isolated bilateral sphenoid sinus agenesis.

A rare cause of submandibular swelling in a 12-year-old child: Pleomorphic adenoma

January 21, 2014     Puneet S. Braich, MD, MPH; Shohan Shetty, MD; Archana Lingampally, MBBS; Michael S. Ajemian, MD, FACS; Mahesh H. Bhaya, MBBS, FACS

Abstract

Pleomorphic adenoma is rare in pediatric populations, where viral and congenital problems are the usual culprits responsible for submandibular masses. We report the case of a 12-year-old child who presented with a painless right submandibular mass that had developed over the course of 4 months. The patient denied fever, erythema, and edema. The mass was diagnosed as a branchial cleft cyst before complete excision was performed. The pattern and etiology of a pleomorphic adenoma in children differs from those in adults. In children, it requires prompt and correct diagnosis to keep morbidity and mortality at a minimum.

Melioidosis of salivary glands with coexisting diabetes: Management of a difficult case

January 21, 2014     M. Panduranga Kamath, MS, DLO; Kiran Bhojwani, MS; Mahabala Chakrapani, MD; Katara P. Vidyalakshmi, MD; K.P. Vishnuprasad, MBBS

Abstract

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. An important risk factor for the development of melioidosis is the presence of diabetes mellitus, which may increase the relative risk of infection by as much as 100-fold. We report a rare case of melioidosis of the parotid and submandibular gland with coexisting diabetes. This was successfully managed conservatively with intravenous ceftazidime followed by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline.

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