Articles

Endoscopic view of osteogenesis imperfecta of the maxilla

June 8, 2014     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

Osseous lesions in the maxilla can represent ossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, amelogenesis imperfecta, or osteogenesis imperfecta.

Extensive basal cell carcinoma of the face: An extreme case of denial

June 8, 2014     Soroush Zaghi, MD; Pedram Ghasri, MD; Paul Busse, MD, PhD; John Clark, MD; Kevin Emerick, MD

Abstract

Patients with head and neck cancer are particularly susceptible to using denial as a coping mechanism. While some forms of denial may help patients achieve better levels of physical functioning, persistent denial can serve as a major barrier to treatment. We report a case of extreme denial by a 60-year-old woman with an extensive basal cell carcinoma of the face that had been neglected for more than 20 years. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential danger of denial, and we discuss strategies that physicians can undertake to properly manage patients who engage in it. Since the diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer can result in profound psychological trauma, gaining an appreciation for how patients cope with it is an important part of the comprehensive care of head and neck oncology patients.

Rhabdomyosarcoma of the supraglottis in an adult

June 8, 2014     Alex Fernandez, MS; Reena Gupta, MD; Hootan Zandifar, MD

Primary laryngeal rhabdomyosarcoma is an extremely uncommon malignant neoplasm in adults, accounting for relatively few documented cases compared with squamous cell carcinoma.

An unusual presentation of anterior subglottic stenosis

June 8, 2014     Harry V. Wright, MD; Kenneth C. Fletcher, MD

Acquired subglottic stenosis should be suspected in any patient with unexplained dyspnea weeks to months following decannulation.

How do pediatric adenoidectomy and adenotonsillotomy influence maternal psychological status?

June 8, 2014     Olaf Zagolski, MD, PhD and Jan Kulisiewicz, MD, PhD

Abstract

We conducted a study to determine the impact that pediatric adenoidectomy or adenotonsillotomy (adenoidectomy with a partial tonsillectomy) had on the short-term psychological status of the children's mothers. Mothers of 100 treated children were examined with the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire immediately before the operation and 3 days afterward; to establish a baseline for control purposes, they completed another questionnaire 10 days postoperatively. We also compiled data for the mothers' demographic information and the children's physical status. In the preoperative period, we found that (1) the anxiety scores of half the mothers were abnormal, (2) depression scores were higher in the adenotonsillotomy group, and (3) anxiety and depression scores were lower in the mothers with more education and in the mothers who had a personal or family history of previous surgery. At 3 days postoperatively, anxiety and depression scores were again lower in the more educated mothers, and lower in the absence of postoperative fever. We conclude that mothers whose children are undergoing adenoidectomy or adenotonsillotomy, particularly the latter, and those with less education may require some psychological intervention. Such help may also be needed when postoperative complications occur.

Metastatic ovarian sex-cord stromal tumor with annular tubules in a patient without Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

June 8, 2014     Kimi Dart, DO; Ted Schwartzenfeld, DO; Warren Brandes, DO; Anthony D'Errico, DO; Michael Stender, MD

Abstract

Sex-cord stromal tumors (SCSTs) with annular tubules (SCTATs) are a small class of ovarian lesions that possess histologic features of both Sertoli and granulosa cells. Approximately one-third of patients with SCTAT also have Peutz-Jaghers syndreome, which makes these cases especially rare. Patients with non-PJS-associated SCTAT make up the remaining two-thirds; 20% of these cases have a metastatic presentation. Metastasis of these tumors to the head and neck region has only been reported in a few instances. In this article we report a case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with “a lump in her throat” and was ultimately diagnosed with SCTAT. We also discuss the current protocols in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity.

Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as a sphenoid sinus mass and meningeal carcinomatosis

June 8, 2014     Hilwati Hashim, MBBCh, MRad; Kartini Rahmat, MBBS, MRad; Yang Faridah Abdul Aziz, MBBS, MRad; Patricia Ann Chandran, MD, MPath

Abstract

We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who was referred to us for evaluation of a 2-week history of fever, headache, vomiting, bilateral ptosis, and blurred vision. Imaging obtained by the referring institution had identified a sphenoid sinus mass and diffuse meningeal infiltration, which was thought to represent an infective process. We subsequently identified the mass as a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient was placed under palliative care, and she died 1 month later. Metastases to the sphenoid sinus from any primary source are very rare, and they are generally not considered in the radiologic differential diagnosis. HCC is known to metastasize to the lung, lymph nodes, and musculoskeletal system; again, reported cases of metastasis to the sphenoid sinus are rare. Indeed, our review of the English-language literature found only 6 previously reported cases of sinonasal metastasis of a primary HCC. A diagnosis of a sinonasal metastasis is more difficult in a patient who has no previous diagnosis of a primary malignancy. In presenting this case, our aim is to remind readers of this possibility.

Sebaceous carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature

June 8, 2014     Alexander Manteghi, DO; Seth Zwillenberg, MD; Vivian Arguello-Guerra, MD

Abstract

Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare malignancy primarily affecting the periocular sebaceous glands. Sebaceous carcinoma of the parotid gland is exceedingly rare, with only 30 cases reported in the literature. Our case brings this total to 31. We present a case involving a 57-year-old man with a slowly enlarging, right tail-of-parotid mass abutting the ear lobule with overlying skin discoloration. Excision of the mass with superficial parotidectomy was performed, and microscopic examination demonstrated sebaceous carcinoma with positive margins. Subsequently, the patient underwent a completion parotidectomy and inferior auriculectomy with no evidence of residual tumor. Six months after postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy, the patient remains tumor-free. The clinical and morphologic features of this tumor are discussed.

Mitek bone-anchored static suture suspension of the oral commissure

June 8, 2014     Candace Hrelec, MD; Stephen Smith Jr., MD

Static facial suspension plays an important role in long-standing facial nerve paralysis, and techniques continue to evolve. Although other procedures are less morbid and invasive than our dynamic facial technique, they also have their complications and limitations.

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor metastatic to the thyroid: A case report and review of the literature

June 8, 2014     Ricardo R. Lastra, MD; Jason G. Newman, MD; John S. Brooks, MD; Jui-Han Huang, MD, PhD

Abstract

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumors are rare soft-tissue neoplasms, usually with an indolent course. However, atypical/malignant variants have been described, showing either local recurrence after complete excision or metastasis to the lungs, mediastinum, adrenals, or soft tissue. We report the case of an ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of the left ankle that metastasized to the lung and thyroid gland 12 years after the initial diagnosis and surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this neoplasm metastasizing to the thyroid gland.

Endoscopic management of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea with septal graft and middle turbinate rotational flap technique: A review of 31 cases

June 8, 2014     Shawky M. Elmorsy, MD; Yasser W. Khafagy, MD

Abstract

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea poses a major challenge to rhinologists. Much controversy attends its cause, pathophysiology, management, and prognosis. It has been suggested that endoscopic placement of a septal graft with a middle turbinate rotational flap may represent the ideal approach to closing skull base defects. We conducted a retrospective chart review to compile the results of this approach in 31 patients with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea-22 women and 9 men, aged 18 to 67 years (mean 38.5 ± 8.96) at diagnosis. After one surgery, success had been achieved in 27 of these patients (87.1%). The remaining 4 patients underwent a second surgery, and 2 of them experienced a successful closure. In the remaining 2 patients, a third surgery was still unsuccessful, and they were referred to the neurosurgical team for a shunt procedure. Thus, the overall success rate with the septal graft and a middle turbinate rotational flap was 93.5% (29/31). Septal grafts and middle turbinate flaps are easy to harvest and easy to place. Accurate localization of the defect, meticulous surgical technique, and cerebral dehydrating measures may improve outcomes. Further study of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea to better evaluate its pathophysiology and prognostic factors is warranted.

Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility of ENT infections in a tropical hospital

June 8, 2014     Yok Kuan Chew, MBBS; Jack Pein Cheong, MBBS; Nambiar Ramesh, MBBS; Mohamad Din Noorafidah, MPath; Sushil Brito-Mutunayagam, MS; Abdullah Khir, MS; Narayanan Prepageran, FRCS

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective observational study to determine the spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of organisms isolated in otorhinolaryngologic (ORL) infections. We reviewed the laboratory culture and sensitivity records of 4,909 patients-2,773 males (56.5%) and 2,136 females (43.5%), aged 2 to 90 years (mean: 45.3 ± 12.6)-who had been seen at two government hospitals in Malaysia. Of this group, 4,332 patients had a respiratory tract infection (88.2%), 206 had an ear infection (4.2%), 188 had a deep neck infection (3.8%), and 183 had an oropharyngeal infection (3.7%). The most common isolated organisms were Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S aureus, coagulase-negative S aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We also identified the antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms. We conclude that since the spectrum of causative pathogens in some infections differs between tropical and nontropical areas of the world, tropical hospitals should not completely adopt the antibiotic guidelines for ORL infections that have been recommended for hospitals in nontropical regions. We hope that our review and analysis of local data will help practitioners in Malaysia develop an appropriate prescribing policy with respect to ORL pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility. The goal is to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these infections.

Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss

June 8, 2014     Dennis J. Kitsko, DO, FACS, FAOCO

Children with hearing loss should avoid noise exposure, and families should be counseled to protect their child's hearing environment and to educate their children about the long-term need to avoid excessive noise exposure.

Helical tomotherapy of the complete scalp and the ipsilateral lymph nodes in a case of scalp angiosarcoma

June 8, 2014     Sonja Katayama, MD; Markus Hantschke, MD; Steffen Lissner, PhD; Katja Lindel, MD; Dieter Oetzel, PhD; Klaus Herfarth, MD; Juergen Debus, MD, PhD; Florian Sterzing, MD

Abstract

Scalp angiosarcoma represents a therapeutic challenge to all disciplines. This case report demonstrates the potential usefulness of helical tomotherapy (HT) as a new radiotherapeutic treatment option. A 71-year-old woman presented with a superficial angiosarcoma of the scalp, forehead, and left pre- and postauricular areas, with several nodular ulcerating and bleeding lesions. Irradiation of the gross tumor was performed with a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions and of the left cervical lymph nodes with 56 Gy in 1.6-Gy fractions. Good target coverage was achieved without compromising organs at risk, notably the brain. Treatment was very fast (661 seconds per fraction) and was administered with minimal acute toxicity (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria: grade 2 erythema and grade 2 dysphagia). During treatment, tumor nodules dissolved into hyperkeratosis. We conclude that with HT, irradiation of the scalp and cervical lymph nodes can be conducted with minimal acute toxicity and without junction problems.

Automastoidectomy

June 8, 2014     Danielle M. Blake, BA; Alejandro Vazquez, MD; Senja Tomovic, MD; Robert W. Jyung, MD

Treatment of automastoidectomy depends on the nature of the patient's symptoms, the presence or absence of pathologic tissue, the presence of complications, and the shape and degree of epithelialization of the resulting mastoid cavity.

Report of a rare case of carcinosarcoma of the maxillary sinus with sternal metastasis

June 8, 2014     Jack P. Cheong, MBBS; Sri Rahayu, MBBS; Abdul Halim, MS; Abdullah Khir, MS; and Din Noorafidah, MMed(Pathol)

Abstract

Carcinosarcoma is a highly aggressive and infiltrative tumor. A finding of this tumor in a paranasal sinus is exceedingly rare. We describe the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a mass on the left side of his face. The mass was excised via a total maxillectomy with a modified radical neck dissection. Histologic analysis identified a mixture of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Within 1 month of surgery, the patient developed a sternal metastasis, and he died within a short period of time. The aggressive nature of this tumor and its metastases demand early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty

June 8, 2014     Aldo Benjamin Guerra, MD, FACS

Abstract

Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months.

Harmonic Scalpel versus electrocautery and surgical clips in head and neck free-flap harvesting

June 8, 2014     Nichole R. Dean, DO; Eben L. Rosenthal, MD; Bruce A. Morgan, MD; J. Scott Magnuson, MD; William R. Carroll, MD

Abstract

We sought to determine the safety and utility of Harmonic Scalpel-assisted free-flap harvesting as an alternative to a combined electrocautery and surgical clip technique. The medical records of 103 patients undergoing radial forearm free-flap reconstruction (105 free flaps) for head and neck surgical defects between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. The use of bipolar electrocautery and surgical clips for division of small perforating vessels (n = 53) was compared to ultrasonic energy (Harmonic Scalpel; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) (n = 52) free tissue harvesting techniques. Flap-harvesting time was reduced with the use of the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with electrocautery and surgical clip harvest (31.4 vs. 36.9 minutes, respectively; p = 0.06). Two patients who underwent flap harvest with electrocautery and surgical clips developed postoperative donor site hematomas, whereas no donor site complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Recipient site complication rates for infection, fistula, and hematoma were similar for both harvesting techniques (p = 0.77). Two flap failures occurred in the clip-assisted radial forearm free-flap harvest group, and none in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Median length of hospitalization was significantly reduced for patients who underwent free-flap harvest with the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with the other technique (7 vs. 8 days; p = 0.01). The Harmonic Scalpel is safe, and its use is feasible for radial forearm free-flap harvest.

Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa

June 8, 2014     Rashmi Jaiswal, PhD; Manoj Pandey, MS; Mridula Shukla, DipNB; Mohan Kumar, MD

Abstract

Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 x 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy.

An abnormal sigmoid sinus with a dire clinical implication

June 8, 2014     Perianan Puraviappan, MS(ORL); Naryanan Prepageran, FRCS Ed; Cheng Ai Ong, MS(ORL); Raffique Abd Karim, MS(ORL); Omkara Rubini Lingham, MS(ORL); Rajagopalan Raman, MS(ORL)

In reviewing CT scans before surgery, the location of the sigmoid sinus should always be noted.

PreviousPage
of 15Next