Duplication of the right internal jugular vein: A case report

June 4, 2015     Srinivasalu Bathala, FRCS(ORL-HNS); Zvoru G. Makura, FRCS(ORL-HNS)


We present a case of duplication of the right internal jugular vein (IJV) in a patient who underwent neck dissection as part of the management of carcinoma of the larynx. The patient was a 63-year-old man who presented to the otolaryngology department with a 7-month history of hoarseness and a 3-week history of noisy breathing. Flexible endoscopy detected a transglottic tumor that had extended beyond the vocal folds. The patient underwent a total laryngectomy and bilateral selective neck dissection at levels II-VI. Intraoperatively, the right IJV was noted to be duplicated. The duplicate segment was approximately 10 cm in length, and it rejoined the normal vein before the normal vein joined the subclavian vein.

Use of fluoroscopic guidance to remove a migrating esophageal foreign body

June 4, 2015     Ramanuj Sinha, MS; Utpal Jana, MS; Soumya Ghatak, MS; Gautam Biswas, MS; Jayanta Saha, MS; Indranil Sen, MS


Ingested foreign bodies that migrate extraluminally are rare. In such cases, exploration of the neck via an external approach is the recommended procedure to remove the object. However, locating such a foreign body can be a difficult task. We report what we believe is the first adult case of fluoroscopically guided localization of an accidentally ingested foreign body that had migrated into the soft tissues of the neck. We also review the other methods used to locate a migrating foreign body.

Dehiscent high jugular bulb attached to the tympanic membrane

June 4, 2015     Hiroshi Sakaida, MD, PhD; Kazuhiko Takeuchi, MD, PhD

The differential diagnosis of high jugular bulb includes cholesterol granuloma, aberrant carotid artery, and tumors such as paraganglioma or schwannoma.

Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy

June 4, 2015     Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, MD; N. Gopendro Singh, MD; Salah Al-Waheeb, MBBCh, FRCPC, FRCPath; Taher N.M. Taher, MBBCh, BDS, MOMS; Emad El Din A.M. Mohammed, BDS, MSc, PhD


We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions.

Cricotracheal resection

June 4, 2015     Amanda Hu, MD, FRCSC; James McCaffrey, MD; Al Hillel, MD

As much as half of the trachea can be resected with a low incidence of anastomotic complications.

A rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum

June 4, 2015     Tejinder Singh Anand, MS, PhD; Gautam Bir Singh, MS; Sunil Garg, MS; Garima Yadav, MBBS; Anita Nangia, MD

Pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal cavity differ from those found elsewhere in that they have more myoepithelial cells and little or no stromal component.

Bezold abscess

June 4, 2015     Yu-Hsuan Lin, MD; Ming-Yee Lin, MD

In some circumstances, the only sign or symptom of Bezold abscess is an unnoticed neck lump.

Maxillary myxoma: A case report and review

June 4, 2015     Matthew P. Connor, MD, Capt.; Michael Neilson, DMD, Maj.; Cecelia E. Schmalbach, MD


An odontogenic myxoma is a rare, benign tumor that is found almost exclusively in the facial bones, usually the mandible. The diagnosis poses a challenge because its features overlap with those of other benign and malignant neoplasms. We present an unusual case of odontogenic myxoma that involved the maxilla, and we review the clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics of this case. Even though it is benign, odontogenic myxoma can be locally invasive and cause significant morbidity. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but it can be challenging because of the tumor's indistinct margins.

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma staging: An overview

June 4, 2015     Nada Ali Alshaikh, MD; Anna Eleftheriadou, MD, PhD


Staging of tumors is very important in treatment and surgical decision making, as well as in predicting disease recurrence and prognosis. This review focuses on the different available classifications of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and their impact on the evaluation, management, and prognosis of JNA. The literature was reviewed, and publications on JNA staging were examined. Our MEDLINE search of the entire English-language literature found no review article on the current available staging systems for JNA. In this article, we review the common JNA classification systems that have been published, and we discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used staging systems for JNA are the Radkowski and the Andrews-Fisch staging systems. However, some newer staging systems that are based on advances in technology and surgical approaches-the Onerci, INCan, and UPMC systems-have shown promising utility, and they will probably gain popularity in the future.

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass and cervical lymphadenopathy

June 4, 2015     Gregory R. Dion, MD, MS, Capt.; Col. Mark D. Packer, MD


Cervical lymphadenopathy in adults has a broad differential diagnosis, including bacterial and viral infections, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and various neoplasms. Many of its etiologies share similar symptomatology and presentations, which complicates the diagnosis. A thorough history and a comprehensive physical examination, to include nasopharyngoscopy and imaging as indicated by the specific case, are key to determining the origin of the lymphadenopathy and to avoid a missed or delayed diagnosis. Based on our review of the literature, we present the second reported case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma presenting in an adult with an obstructing adenoid/nasopharyngeal mass and lymphadenopathy. The mass, which occurred in a 19-year-old woman of Asian descent, caused nasal airway obstruction in the setting of cervical lymphadenopathy that was initially ascribed to mononucleosis.

Neuropathic pain from a nasal valve suspension suture

June 4, 2015     Tyler P. Swiss, DO; Douglas S. Ruhl, MD, MSPH; Scott B. Roofe, MD, FACS

Surgeons should maintain a high index of suspicion when a patient who has undergone nasal valve suspension complains of postoperative neuropathic pain.

Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in light cigar smokers

June 4, 2015     Abdul-latif Hamdan, MD, FACS; Randa Al-Barazi, MD; Jihad Ashkar, MD; Sami Husseini, MD; Alexander Dowli, MD; Nabil Fuleihan, MD


The aim of this prospective study was to look at the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in light cigar smokers in comparison to nonsmokers, in the setting of a voice clinic. A total of 22 cigar smokers and 19 nonsmokers used as controls were enrolled in the study. Demographic data included age, number of years smoking, number of cigars per week, history of allergy, and history of reflux. The confounding effects of allergy and reflux were accounted for in the control group. Subjects underwent laryngeal endoscopy and acoustic analysis. On laryngeal endoscopy, the most common laryngeal finding was thick mucus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of any of the laryngeal findings in cigar smokers vs. controls. In comparison with the control group, both the fundamental frequency and habitual pitch were significantly lower in cigar smokers (p value = 0.034 and 0.004, respectively). We conclude that cigar smokers have lower fundamental frequency and habitual pitch compared to nonsmokers.

Sleep problems of adolescents: A detailed survey

June 4, 2015     Nuray Bayar Muluk, MD; Selda Fatma Bulbul, MD; Mahmut Turgut, MD; Gulsah Agirtas, MD


We investigated the sleep problems and sleep habits of adolescents at three public primary schools and two high schools. Our study included 428 Turkish school children (244 girls and 184 boys). We used a questionnaire to determine the time they went to sleep at night; waking time in the morning; incidence of nightmares, snoring, daytime sleepiness, and intrafamilial physical trauma; concentration difficulty in class; and school success. The students were divided into age-related groups (group 1 = 11 to 13 years of age; group 2 = 14 to 15 years; group 3 = 16 to 18 years). The time they went to sleep was mostly between 10 and 11 p.m. in groups 1 and 2, and 11 to 12 p.m. in group 3. Difficulty in falling asleep was reported by 16.8 to 19.6% of the students in the three groups. Difficulty in waking up in the morning was reported by 12.7% of group 1, 16.0% of group 2, and 16.8% of group 3. Snoring was present in 12.1% of females and 22.0% of males. The occurrence of one nightmare in the preceding 3 months was reported by 11.3% of the students; 17.9% of the students reported having nightmares several times. Daytime sleepiness was present in 65.1%, and concentration difficulty was present in 56.8% of the students. We conclude that difficulty in falling asleep, snoring, and daytime sleepiness may be seen in adolescents who are in both primary and high schools. Watching inappropriate programs and movies on television and intrafamilial physical trauma may cause nightmares and sleeping problems in these adolescents. Students and families should be educated about the importance of sleep in academic performance. Countries' public health policies should address sleep problems and related educational activities.

ACE-inhibitor-related angioedema

June 4, 2015     Norman J. Chan, MD; Ahmed M.S. Soliman, MD

There is debate regarding whether patients who experience ACE-inhibitor-related angioedema can be safely switched to angiotensin receptor blockers.

Internal auditory canal osteoma: Case report and review of the literature

June 4, 2015     Sharon Ovnat Tamir, MD; Francoise Cyna-Gorse, MD; Olivier Sterkers, MD


We report a case of internal auditory canal osteoma and discuss this entity's etiology, natural history, and treatment options. The internal auditory canal osteoma is a rare entity with only a few reports published in the medical literature. Its diagnosis is based on two complementary imaging modalities: thin-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. No consensus exists regarding the treatment of this entity, and treatment should be tailored to each patient depending on that patient's initial complaints, as well as his or her medical findings.

Maggot infestation of an ulcerated neck wound

June 4, 2015     Sidharth V. Puram, MD, PhD; Margaret S. Carter, MD; Daniel Deschler, MD, FACS

The presence of maggots was hardly deliberate in this case, but these larvae successfully debrided a locally recurrent necrotic lymph node.

Intraductal infusion of steroids in patients with Sjogren syndrome to treat painful salivary swelling: Report of 2 cases

June 4, 2015     Henry R. Diggelmann, MD; Henry T. Hoffman, MD, MS, FACS


Painful salivary swelling in patients with Sjögren syndrome presents the clinician with a difficult-to-manage condition, and treatment options are limited. We report 2 cases that demonstrate the utility of a clinic-based intraductal corticosteroid infusion for the treatment of painful salivary swelling associated with Sjögren syndrome. Steroid infusion is a cost-effective, simple-to-perform, well-tolerated gland-sparing procedure that may yield good clinical results in selected patients.

Improvement in allergic and nonallergic rhinitis: A secondary benefit of adenoidectomy in children

June 4, 2015     Meir Warman, MD; Esther Granot, MD; Doron Halperin, MD, MHA


Chronic rhinitis (CR) is a common disorder in children. Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a risk factor for CR, and children with AR tend to suffer more from hypertrophic adenoids than do patients with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Few studies have addressed the issue of alleviating symptoms of pediatric CR or AR following adenoidectomy alone. We conducted a retrospective chart review to determine whether CR in children improves after adenoidectomy and whether children with AR will benefit more than those with NAR. Charts of 47 children who had undergone adenoidectomy for nasal obstruction and chronic middle ear effusion were reviewed. AR and NAR subgroups were classified based on symptoms, signs, blood IgE, and nasal smear (allergic criteria). Hypertrophic adenoids were graded using the adenoid-to-nasopharyngeal ratio (ANr >0.8). A questionnaire was used to assess the change in chronic rhinitis postoperatively. Improvement in CR was reported in 37 of 47 (79%) children. Patients with AR improved to a higher extent than those with NAR (12 of 14 [86%] vs. 25 of 33 [76%], respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant. A total of 41 lateral postoperative nasopharyngeal x-rays were obtained. The x-rays revealed that 20 of 26 (77%) of patients with ANr >0.8 had complete and 4 of 26 (15%) had partial resolution of symptoms of CR for a total resolution rate of 92%, compared to only a 53% resolution in the ANr <0.8 subgroup (6 of 15 and 2 of 15 patients, respectively [p <0.05]). The correlation between adenoid size and resolution of CR was not related to any of the AR/NAR subgroups. We conclude that symptoms of CR may improve after adenoidectomy in children who are experiencing nasal obstruction and chronic otitis media with effusion. Clinical improvement did not differ between AR and NAR patients, and was more prominent in children with hypertrophic adenoids (ANr >0.8).

A novel method for reconstruction of severe caudal nasal septal deviation: Marionette septoplasty

June 4, 2015     Gurkan Kayabasoglu, MD; Alpen Nacar, MS; Mahmut Sinan Yilmaz, MD; Aytug Altundag, MD; Mehmet Guven, MD


We conducted a retrospective study to compare open and endonasal (closed) approaches to extracorporeal reconstruction of severe caudal septal deviations. From January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2013, 78 patients with severe caudal septal deviation underwent corrective surgery at our hospital. Of this group, 33 patients (mean age: 32 yr) underwent extracorporeal septoplasty via an open approach, and 45 patients (mean age: 35 yr) underwent treatment with a new procedure that we developed: subtotal extracorporeal septoplasty through a closed approach, which we call “marionette septoplasty.” In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on surgical time, the duration of postoperative edema, the degree of postoperative pain, and differences between pre- and postoperative nasal function and tip support in both groups. We found that our marionette septoplasty procedure required significantly less surgical time and resulted in a significantly shorter duration of postoperative edema than did open septoplasty, while there was no statistically significant difference between the two procedures in the degree of pain. Following surgery, nasal function in both groups improved significantly, without any significant difference between the two. Finally, we documented improved tip support in all 78 patients. Our results show that marionette septoplasty produces the same functional results as does open septoplasty while requiring less surgical time and shortening the healing period.

Th1 and Th2 cytokine gene expression in atopic and nonatopic patients with nasal polyposis

June 4, 2015     Mohammad Farhadi, MD; Mitra Barati, MPH; Azardokht Tabatabaii, MS; Mehdi Shekarabi, PhD; Samileh Noorbakhsh, MD; Shima Javadinia, MD


The pathogenesis of nasal polyps has been debated for many years. The lymphocytes that infiltrate nasal polyps have been identified as predominantly memory T cells in an activated state, and these cells produce a mixed cytokine pattern of T1 helper (Th1) and T2 helper (Th2) cells. We conducted a prospective study to compare the expression levels of some Th1 and Th2 cytokines in atopic and nonatopic patients. Our study population consisted of 75 adults-42 men and 33 women (mean age: 38 yr)-with nasal polyposis. Patients with an allergy were distinguished from those without an allergy on the basis of the history, the results of skin-prick testing, and measurement of total IgE serum concentrations. Based on these criteria, patients were divided into two groups: atopic (n = 38) and nonatopic (n = 37). Levels of cytokine gene expression in the atopic patients were compared with those of the nonatopic patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis found no significant differences in the rate of interleukin (IL) 10 and IL-12 gene expression between the allergic and nonallergic patients. On the other hand, rates of interferon gamma and IL-4 gene expression were significantly higher in the atopic patients (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Our research suggests that an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells plays an important role in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps. Although nasal polyposis is a multifactorial disease associated with several different etiologic factors, chronic persistent inflammation is undoubtedly a major factor, regardless of the specific etiology.

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