Articles

Cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to the sphenoid sinus

December 19, 2014     Silviu Albu, MD; Opincariu Iulian, MD; Sorin Necula, MD

While metastases to the paranasal sinuses are unusual, metastases to the sphenoid sinus are exceedingly rare, especially metastases of a cutaneous melanoma to the mucosa. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with a solitary sphenoid sinus metastasis that had spread from a cutaneous malignant melanoma. The metastasis was removed via a wide, endoscopically assisted sphenoidotomy. The patient was further treated with external radiotherapy, and at 8 months of follow-up he was free of disease. However, he experienced a recurrence at 3 years that proved to be fatal. We review the pathogenesis and histopathology of sinus metastases, and we discuss the imaging features that characterize melanoma metastatic to the upper respiratory tract. While complete cure of patients with a sphenoid sinus metastasis has not been reported, significant palliation with radiation therapy is possible in many patients. Therefore, patients with sphenoid sinus symptoms suggestive of a sphenoid sinus malignancy should be vigorously evaluated for the possibility of a primary malignancy as well as a metastasis to the sinus.

Cervical presentation of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified

December 19, 2014     Alexander S. Misono, MD; Harrison W. Lin, MD; Linda N. Lee, MD; Judith A. Ferry, MD; James W. Rocco, MD, PhD

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is an uncommon type of lymphoma with a clinically aggressive course and a relatively poor prognosis. Many affected patients present with nodal involvement, and there is also potential for extranodal involvement of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and/or skin. We describe the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of an intermittently tender left-sided neck mass. Findings on imaging and fine-needle aspiration biopsy were inconclusive. Pathologic studies of excisional biopsy specimens ultimately revealed the diagnosis of PTCL-NOS. Of the lymphomas, neither PTCL nor the PTCL-NOS subtype is frequently discussed or studied in prospective trials. However, these cases should be identified because of their substantial clinical management implications.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting as bilateral abductor paralysis

December 19, 2014     Michelle Levian, DO; Reena Gupta, MD, FACS

Occasionally, patients who have amyotrophic lateral sclerosis initially present with vocal and respiratory signs and symptoms.

Superior omohyoid muscle flap repair of cervical esophageal perforation induced by spinal hardware

December 19, 2014     Christopher Chase Surek, DO; Douglas A. Girod, MD, FACS

Cervical esophageal perforation is a rare and life-threatening condition. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment require a high index of suspicion. Cervical spine hardware is an uncommon cause of posterior esophageal perforation. Management has included a variety of musculofascial flaps for surgical repair. We present 2 cases of cervical esophageal perforation induced by spinal hardware that were repaired with a superior omohyoid muscle (SOM) flap for closure and/or primary closure reinforcement. Advantages and techniques of the SOM flap are discussed.

Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

December 19, 2014     Sam S. Torbati, MD, FAAEM; Elaine M. Vos, BA; Daniel Bral, BA; Joel M. Geiderman, MD, FACEP; Benjamin Broukhim, MD, FAAOS

Presenting signs and symptoms of acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli musclegenerally include severe, often debilitating, neck pain and odynophagia without any recent associated trauma.

Sinus transillumination, then and now

December 19, 2014     Dewey A. Christmas, MD; Joseph P. Mirante, MD, FACS; Eiji Yanagisawa, MD, FACS

In recent years, a new use has been found for transillumination in sinus surgical procedures involving balloon dilation. In these procedures, it is used to identify a sinus and to confirm that the balloon has entered the sinus correctly.

Cerebrospinal fluid leaks following septoplasty

December 19, 2014     Naren N. Venkatesan, MD; Douglas E. Mattox, MD; John M. Del Gaudio, MD

We conducted a retrospective review to identify the characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients who had undergone septoplasty and in selected patients who had experienced a spontaneous CSF leak. CSF leak is a known but infrequently reported complication of septoplasty; to the best of our knowledge, only 4 cases have been previously published in the literature. A review of our institution's database revealed 3 cases of postseptoplasty CSF leak. We reviewed all the available data to look for any commonalities among these 7 cases. In addition, we reviewed 6 cases of spontaneous CSF leak selected from our database for the same purpose. For all patients, we noted the side of the cribriform plate defect, its size and, for the postseptoplasty cases, the interval between the septoplasty and the leak repair. Overall, we found that leaks were much more common on the right side than on the left. The sizes of the leaks in the 2 postseptoplasty groups were comparable (mean: 14.0 x 6.4 mm). The interval between septoplasty and leak repair ranged from 2.5 to 20 years in our cases and from 3 days to 22 weeks in the previously published cases. All 3 of the postseptoplasty patients in our database presented with clear rhinorrhea. Two of the 3 patients had meningitis; 1 of these 2 also had pneumocephalus. Of the 6 cases of spontaneous CSF leaks, 4 occurred on the right and 2 on the left; the average size of the defect was 5.8 mm in the greatest dimension. The finding that cribriform plate defects after septoplasty were typically right-sided likely reflects the prevalence of left-sided surgical approaches. Also, the fact that the defects were larger in the postseptoplasty cases than in the spontaneous cases is likely attributable to the torque effect toward the thin skull base that occurs when the perpendicular plate is twisted during septoplasty.

Adult presentation of laryngeal cleft: Utility of the modified barium swallow study in diagnosis and management

December 19, 2014     Genevieve Houdet-Cote, MHSc; Simon R. McVaugh-Smock, MHSc

We present a case of laryngeal cleft in a 41-year-old man to illustrate the co-occurrence of laryngeal cleft and tracheoesophageal fistula. We advocate the use of the modified barium swallow study in the diagnosis of laryngeal cleft. We also review the advantages and limitations of the various diagnostic methods, as well as the potential for known tracheoesophageal fistula to mask laryngeal cleft. Finally, we discuss the importance of early identification of laryngeal cleft in the context of its potentially serious health implications.

Fusobacterium necrophorum in a pediatric retropharyngeal abscess: A case report and review of the literature

December 19, 2014     Jeffrey Cheng, MD; Andrew J. Kleinberger, MD; Andrew Sikora, MD, PhD

We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed a deep space neck infection following cervical trauma. He was initially managed conservatively with broad-spectrum antibiotics, but when he failed to improve clinically, he required surgical drainage. Wound cultures grew Fusobacterium necrophorum, an uncommon pathogen that can cause pediatric deep neck space infections, especially when it is not associated with Lemierre syndrome. The prognosis for this infection is favorable when it is identified early. Treatment with culture-directed antibiotics and surgical drainage as indicated is appropriate. When treating a pediatric deep neck space infection empirically, physicians should avoid treatment with a macrolide antibiotic, since Fusobacterium spp may be involved and they are often resistant to this class of drugs.

Solitary peritoneal lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer diagnosed with FDG-PET/CT imaging

December 19, 2014     Yong-Wan Kim, MD; Byung-Joo Lee, MD; Jin-Choon Lee, MD; Tae-Yong Jeon, MD; Hak-Jin Kim, MD

Distant metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to the infraclavicular lymph nodes-with the exception of the upper mediastinal lymph nodes-is rare. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who was treated with surgery and radiotherapy for SCC of the floor of the mouth. During regular follow-up 6 months after the cessation of radiotherapy, F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected a hypermetabolic lesion in the left lobe of the liver that was diagnosed as a metastasis of the head and neck SCC; no locoregional recurrence was found. The metastasis was surgically removed and more radiotherapy was administered, but the SCC recurred at the same site and the patient died of disseminated disease 12 months after the appearance of the first metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a solitary peritoneal lymph node metastasis from an SCC of the floor of the mouth. We believe that regular FDG-PET/CT follow-up scans are useful for the detection of unusual distant metastases of head and neck cancers.

Temporal bone chondrosarcoma: Presentation of 4 cases and review of the literature

December 19, 2014     Duoduo Tao, MD; Matthew R. Hoffman, MD; Bing Chen, MD, PhD

We describe 4 cases of chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone, which occurred in a 66-year-old man and in 3 women aged 34, 37, and 47 years. One of these patients was originally diagnosed with an epithelial cyst and another with a middle ear neoplasm. Three patients underwent surgical removal of their tumor, while the other patient declined (a craniotomy for biopsy was performed in this case). An accurate diagnosis in all 4 cases was not made until histopathologic examination was performed. None of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy for various reasons. However, the male patient experienced a tumor recurrence, which necessitated a second surgery, and he did receive radiotherapy after the second operation. All 3 operated patients were doing well at the most recent follow-up, and the other patient was soon lost to follow-up. Because of its rarity and potential for severe complications, temporal bone chondrosarcoma remains a difficult disease to diagnose and manage.

Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case

December 19, 2014     Hiroaki Kanaya, MD; Wataru Konno, MD; Satoru Fukami, MD; Hideki Hirabayashi, MD; Shin-ichi Haruna, MD

The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

Laryngeal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

December 19, 2014     Fábio M. Girardi, MD, MSc; Ciro W. Fontana, MD; Ricardo G. Kroef, MD; Marinez B. Barra, MD; Felipe O. Detanico, MD; Nilton T. Herter, MD

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor seldom involves the larynx, as only about 50 to 60 cases have been described in the literature. Even though these tumors are often not aggressive, they have the potential for invasion and local recurrence. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to an emergency department with signs of upper airway obstruction secondary to an obstructive mass. Histology identified the mass as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the subglottis. The patient underwent an emergency tracheotomy followed by a partial laryngectomy. During 14 months of follow-up, he remained free of active disease.

Understanding the regulation of pharmaceutical drug promotion

December 19, 2014     Natalie A. Krane, BS; Robert T. Sataloff, MD, DMA, FACS

Applying print regulations to social media promotional material is exceedingly difficult, as multiple elements, such as communication on social media (e.g., consumer commentary), are not contained within print promotion.

Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasopharynx with parapharyngeal extension: Case report and brief review of the literature

December 19, 2014     Sanjeev Kumar, MS, MRCS, DOHNS; Asad Qayyum, FRCS, AFRCS, DLO; Nazir Bhat, MS, FRCS(ORL-HNS)

We report a rare case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the right lateral nasopharynx with extension into the right parapharyngeal space in a 39-year-old man. Since this is a self-limiting condition, the patient began to improve spontaneously over the next few weeks, and he experienced a complete recovery. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is an uncommon condition that is known to involve the palate; nasopharyngeal involvement is very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, extension into the parapharyngeal area has not been previously reported in the English-language literature. This condition poses a diagnostic dilemma because it closely mimics a malignancy, and failure to recognize it can result in unnecessary investigations and extensive surgery. We also review the literature on necrotizing sialometaplasia of the oropharyngeal area.

Painful rash of the auricle: Herpes zoster oticus

December 19, 2014     Chao-Yin Kuo, MD; Yuan-Yung Lin, MD; Chih-Hung Wang, MD, PhD

A PCR assay in addition to conventional serologic testing provides quick confirmation of the diagnosis of herpes zoster oticus infection.

Clival fibrous dysplasia: Case series and review of the literature

December 19, 2014     Selena E. Heman-Ackah, MD, MBA; Holly Boyer, MD; Rick Odland, MD, PhD

Slightly more than 30 cases of fibrous dysplasia involving the clivus have been reported in the international literature, primarily in the neurosurgery and radiology literature. In this article we present a series of 4 cases involving patients with clival fibrous dysplasia. In a retrospective chart review, 4 patients presenting to tertiary care centers from January 1, 2006, to January 31, 2008, were identified and their presenting symptoms and radiologic findings reviewed. Based on our literature review, we describe the presenting symptoms of patients with clival fibrous dysplasia and characterize the findings of imaging studies associated with this disorder. All patients in this series had a presenting complaint of headache or cranial nerve deficits, which is consistent with previous reports found in our literature review. Additional presenting symptoms that have been reported include dysphagia and a nontender occipital mass; there was also an incidental asymptomatic finding. Magnetic resonance imaging findings are consistent with those associated with fibrous dysplasia at other sites of the body. We conclude that clival involvement in monostotic fibrous dysplasia may not be as rare as previously perceived.

Iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim during frontal trephine irrigation

December 19, 2014     Douglas Angel, MD; Rebecca Zener, MD; Brian W. Rotenberg, MD, MPH, FRCSC

Frontal sinus trephination (FST) has numerous applications in the treatment of acute and chronic sinus disease. This procedure involves making an incision at the medial aspect of the supraorbital rim and then drilling the sinus's anterior table. Placement of a frontal trephine allows for irrigation of the frontal recess in order to evacuate the frontal sinus in a minimally invasive manner. Orbital injury is a rare complication of FST. We present a case of previously unreported orbital compartment syndrome secondary to iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim as a complication of frontal trephine irrigation. We also review the literature on the applications of FST and its associated complications, and we discuss orbital compartment syndrome as a complication of sinus surgery.

Retropharyngeal masses in neurofibromatosis type 1: Imaging findings in 2 cases

December 19, 2014     Roy Riascos, MD; Jennifer Dodds, MD; Nirav Patel, MD

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) affects mesenchymal development via multisystemic manifestations. We present 2 cases of NF-1 that manifested as a retropharyngeal mass-1 as a lateral cervical meningocele in a 60-year-old man and the other as a focal neurofibroma in a 37-year-old man. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was invaluable in identifying the exact nature of the 2 lesions; no contrast enhancement was seen in the case of the meningocele, and enhancement was seen in the case of the neurofibroma. These 2 cases illustrate the importance of the history and contrast-enhanced MRI in managing NF-1 patients with a retropharyngeal mass.

Simultaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the external auditory canal and thyroid gland: A case report

December 19, 2014     BeeLian Khaw, MD; Shailendra Sivalingam, MS-ORL; Sitra Siri Pathamanathan, MBBS; Teck S. Tan, MBChB, MRCS; Manimalar Naicker, MPath

Approximately 25% of all cases of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occur in the head and neck region; NHL of the external auditory canal (EAC) and thyroid gland are rare. Specific immunohistochemical staining of the excised tissue is required to confirm the final pathologic diagnosis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hemolytic anemia that were in remission. She presented with chronic left ear pain, a mass in the left EAC, and rapid growth of an anterior neck swelling that had led to left vocal fold palsy. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone and CT of the neck detected a mass lateral to the left tympanic membrane and another mass in the anterior neck that had infiltrated the thyroid gland. The patient was diagnosed with simultaneous B-cell lymphoma of the left EAC and thyroid gland. She was treated with chemotherapy. She responded well to treatment and was lost to follow-up after 1 year. To the best of our knowledge, the simultaneous occurrence of a lymphoma in the EAC and the thyroid has not been previously described in the literature.

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