Eagle syndrome is often a diagnosis of exclusion after other etiologies of pain are thoroughly investigated, and it can be determined via a physical examination and characteristic radiographic findings.
Eagle syndrome, also known as stylohyoid syndrome, was first described by Dr. W. Watt Eagle in 1937 as an uncommon cause of facial pain.1 It is characterized by an elongated styloid process, a calcified stylohyoid ligament, or a combination of the two.2,3 The exact pathophysiology of Eagle syndrome is unclear, although many theories exist.4
Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature.
Hemangiomas are common lesions of the head and neck. They are classified histologically as capillary, cavernous, or mixed.1 Although the cause is unknown, microtrauma and hormonal factors have been implicated in their etiology.2
Funding/support: This work was supported by grant 20124450 from the Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau....
Primary branchiogenic carcinoma is a rare condition. In fact, most of the cases that were previously reported as such were actually cystic metastases of oropharyngeal carcinomas. We report a true case of primary branchial cleft cyst carcinoma. Our patient was a 42-year-old woman who presented with a painless fluctuant swelling in the right side of her neck. The lesion was completely excised, and pathology identified it as a squamous cell carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst. Patients with this condition require a careful evaluation of the entire head and neck region, especially the oropharynx, to look for any cystic metastasis of the primary tumor.
Von Volkmann first described branchiogenic carcinoma in 1882.1 However, in 1950, Martin et al questioned the existence of this entity.2 Martin et al proposed four criteria for the diagnosis of branchiogenic carcinoma2:
The tumor must lie along a line anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle between the tragus and the clavicle....
Bony destruction of the labyrinth is usually associated with long-standing cholesteatomatous otitis media. The promontory is not a common site for bone resorption because (1) it is not an area that is involved in accumulation of cholesteatoma perimatrix substances, (2) it is the densest bone of the human body, and (3) pressure necrosis from overlying tissue is uncommon. We report a case of cochlear erosion associated with noncholesteatomatous middle ear disease. As far as we know, this is only the second such case reported in the literature. We also review decision-making factors and techniques for the safe management of this condition.
Labyrinthine fistula may be a complication of otitis media with cholesteatoma.1 Labyrinthine fistula most commonly affects the horizontal semicircular canal. A fistula of the cochlea is a rare finding; when it does occur, it is usually associated with extensive middle ear disease and cholesteatoma.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is the combination of dysphagia, angular cheilitis, atrophic glossitis, and esophageal webbing in the setting of iron deficiency anemia. Although it is relatively uncommon, this condition is important to recognize because it is a source of dysphagia and it confers an increased risk for hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases of PVS associated with gastrointestinal conditions such as celiac disease and gastric cancer have been previously reported in the literature, but as far as we know, no case of PVS associated with bariatric surgery has been previously reported. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who developed PVS following gastric bypass surgery, and we briefly discuss the current knowledge of this syndrome.